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julio 2020

Endotracheal Tube (ET)

The endotracheal tube (ETT) was first reliably used in the early 1900s. In its simplest form, it is a tube constructed of polyvinylchloride (PVC) that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea to provide oxygen and inhaled gases to the lungs. It also serves to protect the lungs from contamination such as gastric contents and blood. The advancement of the endotracheal tube has closely followed advancements in anesthesia and surgery. Modifications have been made to minimize aspiration,…

Gram-negative bacteria as causative agents of ventilator-associated pneumonia and their respective resistance mechanisms

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious and common complication in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and contributes to mortality. Multidrug Gram-negative bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae are frequently associated with VAP in ICU. A prospective study was set up in three ICUs of the University Hospital Center Zagreb and one ICU in General Hospital Pula from September 2017 to March 2018. Antibiotic susceptibility…

Imipenem-Relebactam Susceptibility Testing of Gram-Negative Bacilli by Agar Dilution, Disk Diffusion, and Gradient Strip Methods Compared with Broth Microdilution

This study aimed to determine whether agar dilution, and research use only disk diffusion (Mast Group Ltd., Bootle Merseyside, UK), Etest (bioMérieux, Inc., Durham, NC), and MIC test strip (MTS) (Liofilchem, Inc., Waltham, MA) methods yield equivalent results to those of broth microdilution (BMD) for imipenem-relebactam susceptibility testing using a collection of 297 Gram-negative bacilli, including members of the order Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enriched for drug-resistance….