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noviembre 3, 2020

Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients with Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Who Do or Do Not Develop Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. An Observational Study

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a well-known complication of patients on invasive mechanical ventilation. The main cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is pneumonia. ARDS can occur in patients with community-acquired or nosocomial pneumonia. Data regarding ARDS incidence, related pathogens, and specific outcomes in patients with VAP is limited. This is a cohort study in which patients with VAP were evaluated in an 800-bed tertiary teaching hospital between 2004 and 2016….

Imipenem/Cilastatin/Relebactam Alone and in Combination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Model

Combination therapy may enhance imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam’s (I/R) activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and suppress resistance development. Human-simulated unbound plasma concentrations of I/R 1.25g every six hours (h), colistin 360 mg daily, and amikacin 25 mg/kg daily were reproduced alone and in combination against six imipenem-non-susceptible P. aeruginosa isolates in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model over 24 hours. For I/R alone, reductions in colony forming units (CFU) by 24h were…

Efficacy of prophylactic letermovir for cytomegalovirus reactivation in hematopoietic cell transplantation: a multicenter real-world data

A novel anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) agent, letermovir (LMV), could reportedly improve the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients because of its high potential to prevent CMV reactivation. Therefore, 685 Japanese allo-HCT recipients, of whom ~80% had a high risk of CMV reactivation, were retrospectively analyzed to assess the impacts of prophylactic LMV on the incidence of clinically significant CMV (csCMV) infection as well as their transplant outcome. By…

Analysis of blood stream infections, antibiograms and clinical outcomes in haematological patients with febrile neutropenia: data from a tertiary care haematology institute in India

Timely administration of appropriate empirical antibiotics in febrile neutropenia is crucial for favourable patient outcomes. There are guidelines in place recommending such antibiotics. However, regional variations and local epidemiological data must be evaluated to tailor the antibiotics for best possible and rational use. In this study, we audited the clinical and microbiological data of febrile neutropenic episodes occurring at a tertiary care haematology institution. Three hundred and…

Structural and Cellular Insights into the l,d-Transpeptidase YcbB as a Therapeutic Target in Citrobacter rodentium, <em>Salmonella</em> Typhimurium, and <em>Salmonella</em> Typhi Infections

The bacterial cell wall plays a key role in viability and is an important drug target. The cell wall is made of elongated polymers that are cross-linked to one another to form a load-bearing mesh. An alternative cell wall cross-linking mechanism used by the l,d-transpeptidase YcbB has been implicated in the stress-regulated roles of β-lactam resistance, outer membrane defect rescue, and typhoid toxin release. The role for this stress-linked cross-linking in the context of a host infection was…

Rezafungin-Mechanisms of Action, Susceptibility and Resistance: Similarities and Differences with the Other Echinocandins

Rezafungin (formerly CD101) is a new β-glucan synthase inhibitor that is chemically related with anidulafungin. It is considered the first molecule of the new generation of long-acting echinocandins. It has several advantages over the already approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) echinocandins as it has better tissue penetration, better pharmacokinetic/phamacodynamic (PK/PD) pharmacometrics, and a good safety profile. It is much more stable in solution than the older echinocandins,…