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febrero 2, 2021

Primary immunodeficiency and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: pathophysiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by a chronic or recurrent non-invasive infection, mainly due to Candida albicans, in skin, nails, and mucous membranes, associated in some cases with autoimmune manifestations. The key immune defect is a disruption of the action of cytokine IL-17, whose most common genetic etiology is STAT1 gene gain-of-function (GOF) mutations. The initial appropriate treatment for fungal infections is with azoles. However, the frequent occurrence of drug…

A Cluster of Neonatal Infections Caused by Candida auris at a Large Referral Center in Colombia

BACKGROUND: Globally, Candida auris is an emerging pathogen that poses an essential threat in healthcare settings presenting as outbreaks requiring significant allocation of infection control interventions to curb transmission. This fungal pathogen was initially identified in 2009 in Japan, but it has spread to all continents. Candida auris poses significant diagnostic and treatment challenges. Conventional microbiology laboratories often misidentify this pathogen as Candida haemulonii or as…

Therapeutic drug monitoring of flucytosine in a cardiac transplant patient receiving continuous veno-venous hemofiltration and intermittent hemodialysis: A case report

Invasive candidiasis is one of the common infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Guidelines recommend echinocandins or liposomal amphotericin with consideration of flucytosine (5-fluorocytosine; 5-FC) as synergistic therapy for treatment of select deep-seated Candida infections, including complex endovascular infections. Flucytosine undergoes extensive renal elimination; however, optimal dosing in patients with renal impairment, or those requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT), is…

Radiolabeled Tedizolid Phosphate Liposomes for Topical Application: Design, Characterization, and Evaluation of Cellular Binding Capacity

Nowadays, the incidence of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) is increasing. The increased bioavailability and reduced drug resistance of antibiotics are crucial to obtain a more effective treatment response in these infections. These favorable properties could be achieved by different drug delivery systems such as liposomes. In this study, nanosized, radiolabeled tedizolid phosphate liposomal formulations were prepared and evaluated with their in vitro cellular binding…

Alteration in the Acute Kidney Injury Potential with the Combination of Vancomycin and Imipenem-Cilastatin/Relebactam or Piperacillin/Tazobactam in a Preclinical Model

Background: This risk of vancomycin (VAN)-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) may be altered with combination regimens. The specific AKI risk when VAN is combined with imipenem-cilastatin/relebactam (IMP-C/REL) or piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) has not been clearly defined.Objectives: To quantify the dose-AKI relationships of VAN alone and in combination with TZP or imipenem-cilastatin/relebactam (IMP-C/REL).Methods: Ten to twelve week old male C57BL/6J mice (Charles River Laboratory) were dosed…

Insights of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic: a current review

COVID-19, a pandemic of the 21st century caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was originated from China and shallowed world economy and human resource. The medical cures via herbal treatments, antiviral drugs, and vaccines still in progress, and studying rigorously. SARS-CoV-2 is more virulent than its ancestors due to evolution in the spike protein(s), mediates viral attachment to the host’s membranes. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding spike domain associates itself with human…

Rare sideroblastic anemias: about 2 cases, review of the literature and reminder of the main etiologies

Sideroblastic anemias in adults are often quickly labeled as myelodysplasias. We report two unfrequent observations of secondary acquired forms. The first one is a 15-year-old girl presented with severe cytopenias. The myelogram revealed the presence of vacuolated myeloid and erythroblastic precursors, with ring sideroblasts. Copper deficiency has been demonstrated in front of the association with collapsed cupremia and ceruleoplasminemia, with normal cupruria. The second case is a 70-year-old…

Comparative efficacy of the novel diarylquinoline TBAJ-587 and bedaquiline against a resistant <em>Rv0678</em> mutant in a mouse model of tuberculosis

Since its conditional approval in 2012, bedaquiline (BDQ) has been a valuable tool for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. More recently, a novel short-course regimen combining BDQ with pretomanid and linezolid won approval to treat highly drug-resistant tuberculosis. Clinical reports of emerging BDQ resistance have identified mutations in Rv0678 that de-repress the expression of the MmpL5/MmpS5 efflux transporter as the most common cause. Because the effect of these mutations on bacterial…