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marzo 1, 2021

Pipeline of anti-Mycobacterium abscessus small molecules: Repurposable drugs and promising novel chemical entities

The Mycobacterium abscessus complex is a group of emerging pathogens that are difficult to treat. There are no effective drugs for successful M. abscessus pulmonary infection therapy, and existing drug regimens recommended by the British or the American Thoracic Societies are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, novel antibacterial drugs are urgently needed to contain this global threat. The current anti-M. abscessus small-molecule drug development process can be enhanced by two…

Comparative in vitro effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam against pediatric gram-negative drug-resistant isolates

Ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T), a cephalosporin/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination, was evaluated in vitro vs. 10 comparators against 299 pediatric extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant or carbapenem-resistant (ESC-R/CR) Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae from three freestanding pediatric centers. Isolates were from urine or other sterile sites of children and adolescents through 21 years of age. Susceptibilities were assayed by microbroth dilution via custom Sensititre plates (Thermo Fisher…

Dual Drug Loaded Bilayer Hydrogel Coated with Citric Acid for the Treatment of Dry Mouth Syndrome

The objective of the present study is to formulate the bilayer hydrogel of Aceclofenac and Itraconazole followed by surface spray coating with citric acid to treat inflammation, oral candidiasis, and xerostomia conditions in HIV patients. The hydrogel was prepared by the chemical cross-linking method using polyvinyl alcohol as polymer at the concentrations of 3%, 5%, 7%, and 9% w/v, for both the individual drugs and the combination bilayer. The amount of cross-linking agent (glutaraldehyde 1%…

On-site chlorination responsible for effective disinfection of wastewater from hospital

Both hospital effluent and a model sewage treatment plant (STP) wastewater prepared by mixing STP influent and STP secondary effluent at a volume ratio of 1:9 were directly treated with chlorine for investigation of their effects on disinfection of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (AMRB) and antimicrobial-susceptible bacteria (AMSB). The overall results indicate that the chlorine disinfection effectively inactivated the majority of AMRB and AMSB, expect for MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in both…

Species Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Isolates from Women with Nonrecurrent and Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is caused by Candida spp., a vaginal colonizer. Despite the clinical importance of RVVC, little is known regarding the characteristics of the disease in Portugal. Thirty-six clinical cases were analyzed, comprising 93 yeast vulvovaginal isolates obtained from women attending a gynecologic consultation at a private clinic. Of these, 18 women were diagnosed with RVVC, while other 18 women had a sporadic episode of infection (nonrecurrent vulvovaginal…

Synergistic effect of antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and colistin combination against multidrug-resistant <em>Escherichia coli</em> isolates

Overview: The global spread of antibiotic resistance represents a serious threat for public health. Aim: We evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 as antimicrobial agent against multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli. Results: LL-37 showed good activity against mcr-1 carrying, extended spectrum β-lactamase- and carbapenemase-producing E. coli (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC, from 16 to 64 mg/l). Checkerboard assays demonstrated synergistic effect of LL-37/colistin…

Bipolar Distribution of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Q203 Across Mycobacterial Species

In this study, we conducted an experimental study to evaluate in vitro susceptibility of Q203 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as the major pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacterial species. A total of 344 nonduplicate mycobacterium isolates were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing. Overall, Q203 exhibited excellent activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) isolates, whereas it showed high minimum inhibitory…

Nurse role and contribution to antimicrobial stewardship: An integrative review

CONCLUSION: Formal inclusion of nurses in antimicrobial stewardship activities has been associated with improved nurse knowledge, nurse confidence, and in some cases improved clinical outcomes for patients. The review reinforces nursing values as a motivator of nursing actions, and reveals the complex yet significant influence of nurses on antimicrobial prescribing. Potential opportunities to enhance nurses’ participation and contribution to antimicrobial stewardship include; formal…