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marzo 2, 2021

Lytic bacteriophages facilitate antibiotic sensitization of <em>Enterococcus faecium</em>

Enterococcus faecium, a commensal of the human intestine, has emerged as a hospital-adapted, multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogen. Bacteriophages (phages), natural predators of bacteria, have regained attention as therapeutics to stem the rise of MDR bacteria. Despite their potential to curtail MDR E. faecium infections, the molecular events governing E. faecium-phage interactions remain largely unknown. Such interactions are important to delineate because phage selective pressure imposed on E….

Random Peptide Mixtures as Safe and Effective Antimicrobials against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA in Mouse Models of Bacteremia and Pneumonia

Antibiotic resistance is a daunting challenge in modern medicine, and novel approaches that minimize the emergence of resistant pathogens are desperately needed. Antimicrobial peptides are newer therapeutics that attempt to do this; however, they fall short because of low to moderate antimicrobial activity, low protease stability, susceptibility to resistance development, and high cost of production. The recently developed random peptide mixtures (RPMs) are promising alternatives. RPMs are…

Recovery efficiency of two glove-sampling methods

Two methods to sample pathogens from gloved hands were compared: direct imprint onto agar and a sponge-wipe method. The sponge method was significantly better at recovering Clostridiodes difficile spores, and no difference was observed between the methods at 101 inoculum for carbapenemase-producing KPC+ Klebsiella pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii.

Genomic analysis revealed a novel genotype of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolated from a fatal sepsis case in dengue patient

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing serious health implications in susceptible individuals once it invades the host’s protective barriers. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) often receives lesser attention although it has been frequently associated with serious infections in human. We aim to investigate the genomic features of a highly virulent yet pan susceptible MSSA strain (coded as HS-MSSA) which caused concurrent bacteraemia in a dengue…

Impact of Bicarbonate on PBP2a Production, Maturation, and Functionality in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Certain methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains exhibit β-lactam-susceptibility in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo in the presence of NaHCO(3) (NaHCO(3)-responsive MRSA). Herein, we investigate the impact of NaHCO(3) on factors required for PBP2a functionality. Prototype NaHCO(3)-responsive and -nonresponsive MRSA strains (as defined in vitro) were assessed for the impact of NaHCO(3) on: expression of genes involved in PBP2a production-maturation pathways (mecA, blaZ, pbp4, vraSR,…

Human DNA methylation signatures differentiate persistent from resolving MRSA bacteremia

Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is life threatening and occurs in up to 30% of MRSA bacteremia cases despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Isolates of MRSA that cause antibiotic-persistent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia (APMB) typically have in vitro antibiotic susceptibilities equivalent to those causing antibiotic-resolving methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia (ARMB). Thus, persistence reflects host-pathogen interactions occurring…

Effects of cefazolin-containing niosome nanoparticles against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formed on chronic wounds

The ability of biofilm formation in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes significant mortality and morbidity in wound infections. Nanoparticles because of the drug concentration increment at the point of contact of nanoparticles and bacteria, and slower release of the drug at the desired location are considered as proper tools to overcome the therapeutic problem of antimicrobial-resistant infections. This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-biofilm activity of…

Population pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin and dosing consideration for optimal treatment of adult patients with staphylococcal osteoarticular infections

Background: Dalbavancin is gaining interest in the treatment of complex osteoarticular (OA) infections.Objective: To conduct a population pharmacokinetic analysis of dalbavancin in a prospective cohort of adult patients with Gram-positive OA infections and to identify optimal dosing regimens for long term-treatment.Methods: Non-linear mixed-effects modelling was performed with Monolix. Monte Carlo simulations were performed with six dalbavancin regimens (1500mg at day 1; 1000mg at day 1 plus…

Medication Prescribing Practices in Croatian Dental Offices and Their Contribution to National Consumption

CONCLUSION: Current trends show an increase in the overall prescription rate for all medications prescribed by dentists. The largest increase was observed for the broad-spectrum amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, and ibuprofen. As the apparent widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics by dentists in Croatia is in contrast to national and international recommendations for antibiotic stewardship, there is a need for further prospective investigation and possible provider education and…