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marzo 3, 2021

Management of rifampicin-resistant TB: programme indicators and care cascade analysis in South Africa

BACKGROUND: Xpert^(®) MTB/RIF was expected to revolutionise the management of rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) by enabling rapid and decentralised diagnosis of rifampicin (RIF) resistance.METHODS: We performed a care cascade analysis for a cohort of RR-TB patients managed under programmatic conditions. Cumulative incidences of time to completion of the RR-TB care cascade steps were estimated, reasons for delay or attrition from the cascade investigated and WHO programme indicators for monitoring…

TB management in the European Union/European Economic Area: a multi-centre survey

BACKGROUND: Essential TB care in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) comprises 21 standards for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of TB that constitute the European Union Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ESTC).METHODS: In 2017, we conducted an audit on TB management and infection control measures against the ESTC standards. TB reference centres in five EU/EEA countries were purposely selected to represent the heterogeneous European TB burden and examine geographic…

Investigation of Phylogeny and Drug Resistance Mechanisms of <em>Elizabethkingia anophelis</em> Isolated from Blood and Lower Respiratory Tract

Elizabethkingia species are environmental bacteria associated with opportunistic infections in vulnerable populations. Traditionally, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica was considered the predominant pathogenic species. However, commercial identification systems have routinely misidentified Elizabethkingia anophelis as E. meningoseptica, leading to a mischaracterization of clinical strains and an underestimation of the role of E. anophelis in human disease. Elizabethkingia spp. harbor multidrug…

Predictors of Acute Kidney Injury and 28-Day Mortality in Carbapenem-Resistant <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> Complex Bacteremia

Colistin is an, antibiotic used to treat carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex (CRABC) infection. However, colistin is well known for its nephrotoxicity. To accurately assess the effects of colistin on acute kidney injury (AKI) and 28-day mortality, we investigated the risk factors associated with AKI and mortality in patients with CRABC bacteremia who received or never received colistin. Patients with CRABC bacteremia aged ≥18 years were retrospectively identified for 3 years at…

Biofilm Formation and Prevalence of Biofilm-Related Genes Among Clinical Strains of Multidrug-Resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>

The biofilm-forming Staphylococcus aureus strains are responsible for causing a number of diseases. With the emergence of multidrug resistance they constitute a catastrophic threat to medicine. The ability of 65 clinical strains of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) to form biofilm in vitro was examined in this study and analyzed in relation to SCCmec, spa type, microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs), and ica genes. Results obtained from crystal violet…

Prevalence of nasal carriers of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in primary health care units in Brazil

Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus by healthcare workers is of great clinical importance as it facilitates the contamination of medical devices and cross-transmission. However, studies regarding the epidemiology and dissemination of S. aureus and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) within the Primary Health Care in Brazil are scarce. The current study aimed to detect and characterize S. aureus and MRSA strains from the nasal cavities of 63 healthcare working in primary health care units…

Increasing antibiotic activity by rapid bioorthogonal conjugation of drug to resistant bacteria using an upconverted light-activated photocatalyst

Antibiotic vancomycin (Van) is often used as the drug of last resort to treat methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Due to the emergence of Van-resistant microbes, it is necessary to continuously design strategies to increase the efficacy of Van against resistant cells. In this study, an efficient method of bio-conjugating Van to bacteria is proposed using near-infrared (NIR)-light activation. A Nd3+-sensitized upconversion nanocrystal (UCNC) decorated with toluidine blue O (TB) on its…

State of the Art in Cystic Fibrosis Pharmacology Optimization of anti-microbials in the treatment of Cystic Fibrosis Pulmonary Exacerbations: III. Executive Summary

Acute pulmonary exacerbations (APE) are complications of cystic fibrosis (CF) and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Aspergillus fumigatus are organisms that have been detected in the lungs of CF patients. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the classes of antimicrobials used for MRSA and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a hypersensitivity reaction caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. The…