Currently browsing

marzo 8, 2021

Evaluation of the post-antibiotic effect in vivo for the combination of a beta-lactam antibiotic and a beta-lactamase inhibitor: ceftazidime-avibactam in neutropenic mouse thigh and lung infections

The post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of ceftazidime-avibactam in vivo was evaluated using models of thigh- and lung-infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in neutropenic mice. In thigh-infected mice, the PAE was negative (-2.18 to -0.11 h) for three of four strains: caused by a ‘burst’ of rapid bacterial growth after the drug concentrations had fallen below their pre-specified target values. With lung infection, PAE was positive, and longer for target drug concentrations in ELF (>2 h) than plasma…

Dihydro-β-agarofuran-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Seeds of <em>Celastrus virens</em> and Their Multidrug Resistance Reversal Activity against the KB/VCR Cell Line

Twenty-nine dihydro-β-agarofuran-type sesquiterpenoids, including 17 new and 12 known compounds, were obtained from the seeds of Celastrus virens. The structures of the new isolates were characterized by spectroscopic methods and X-ray diffraction analysis. Among these, 20 sesquiterpenoids were evaluated for their multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity against the KB/VCR cell line. As a result, compounds 6 and 8 were found to exhibit MDR-reversal activity of more than 10-fold at a…

CuO<sub>(1-x)</sub>ZnO <sub>x</sub> nanocomposite with broad spectrum antibacterial activity: application in medical devices and acrylic paints

Inappropriate and disproportionate use of antibiotics have led to a rapid increase in antibacterial resistance. Therefore, alternative antibacterial strategies and solutions are sought to overcome any form of resistance to effectively treat and/or prevent the spread of infections. In this study, we report an eco-friendly and scalable approach to produce highly antibacterial CuO((1-x))ZnO (x) nanocomposite and its inclusion in medical devices and acrylic paint. Nanocomposite has nanoporous…

The role of dalbavancin for Gram positive infections in the COVID-19 era: state of the art and future perspectives

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically challenged the national health systems worldwide in the last months, causing a huge reorganization of care facilities and reaffirming the central role of territorial medicine. Dalbavancin is a novel antibiotic with a long plasmatic half-life and simplified weekly administration regimens, thus representing a promising option for the outpatient treatment of Gram-positive infections and the early discharge of hospitalized patients. Dalbavancin is…

Rationality of Time-Dependent Antimicrobial Use in Intensive Care Units in China: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

Background: Extended/continuous infusion and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of time-dependent antimicrobials are recommended for optimizing drug exposure for patients in intensive care units (ICUs), although practical application of these measures remains uncertain. We surveyed current practices in infusion and monitoring of commonly prescribed time-dependent antimicrobials in ICUs across China. Methods: From December 2019 to January 2020, we sent online questionnaires about various aspects…

Evaluation of the Quality of Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care: A Multicenter Longitudinal Study From Shenzhen, China

Background: Currently, there is no comprehensive evaluation of the quality of antibiotic prescribing in China’s primary care facilities based on longitudinal data. Methods: We randomly selected 11 community health centers in Shenzhen, China, and collected all outpatient prescriptions of these centers from 2010 to 2015. To evaluate the quality of antibiotic prescribing, we used six quality indicators for analysis, including number of antibiotics per 100 consultations, ratio between broad-spectrum…

A Narrative Review of Antimicrobial Stewardship Interventions within In-patient Settings and Resultant Patient Outcomes

The overuse of antibiotics has led to various healthcare problems such as the emergence of resistance in infectious microbes and mortality due to antibiotic resistant healthcare associated infections (HAIs). An antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) program is the set of interventions used worldwide to enhance the rational use of antibiotics especially for the hospitalized patients. This review aimed to describe the characteristics of the implemented AMS programs in various hospitals of the world…