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marzo 15, 2021

Case Report: Proven Diagnosis of Culture-Negative Chronic Disseminated Candidiasis in a Patient Suffering From Hematological Malignancy: Combined Application of mNGS and CFW Staining

Chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC) is a severe complication with high morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies who have undergone chemotherapy. Blood or sterile liver biopsy cultures are negative due to recurrent empirical antifungal therapy. With the escalating resistance to azole-based antifungal drugs in infection by Candida species, pathogen identification is becoming increasingly important for determining definitive diagnosis and treatment strategy. In this…

Clinical Profile of Hyper-IgE Syndrome in India

Introduction: Hyper-IgE Syndrome (HIES) is a rare inborn error of immunity (IEI) characterized by a constellation of symptoms related to susceptibility to Staphylococcal skin and pulmonary infections, eczema, raised serum IgE (>2,000 IU/ml), craniofacial anomalies, and recurrent bone fractures. Data on HIES from the Indian subcontinent is scarce and restricted to small case series and case reports. This is the first compilation of national data on HIES. Materials and Methods: A total 103 cases…

Autoimmune Addison’s Disease as Part of the Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1: Historical Overview and Current Evidence

The autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS1) is caused by pathogenic variants of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, located in the chromosomal region 21q22.3. The related protein, AIRE, enhances thymic self-representation and immune self-tolerance by localization to chromatin and anchorage to multimolecular complexes involved in the initiation and post-initiation events of tissue-specific antigen-encoding gene transcription. Once synthesized, the self-antigens are presented to, and…

Chemotranscriptomic Profiling Defines Drug-Specific Signatures of the Glycopeptide Antibiotics Dalbavancin, Vancomycin and Chlorobiphenyl-Vancomycin in a VanB-Type-Resistant Streptomycete

Dalbavancin, vancomycin and chlorobiphenyl-vancomycin share a high degree of structural similarity and the same primary mode of drug action. All inhibit bacterial cell wall biosynthesis through complexation with intermediates in peptidoglycan biosynthesis mediated via interaction with peptidyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine (d-Ala-d-Ala) residues present at the termini of the intermediates. VanB-type glycopeptide resistance in bacteria encodes an inducible reprogramming of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis…

Molecular Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility of Yeasts and Molds Isolated from Patients with Otomycosis

Fungal otitis externa, an infection of the external auditory canal caused by molds and yeasts, accounts for approximately 10-20% of ear canal infections accompanying high recurrence. The purpose of the current study was to assess the pattern of etiological agents of otomycosis and resistance profile as well as the rate of tympanic membrane perforation. A total of 1040 patients with symptoms of fungal otitis externa, in a period of two years, were investigated. The mycological tests revealed the…

Immune Resolution Dilemma: Host Antimicrobial Factor S100A8/A9 Modulates Inflammatory Collateral Tissue Damage During Disseminated Fungal Peritonitis

Intra-abdominal infection (peritonitis) is a leading cause of severe disease in surgical intensive care units, as over 70% of patients diagnosed with peritonitis develop septic shock. A critical role of the immune system is to return to homeostasis after combating infection. S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) is an antimicrobial and pro-inflammatory protein complex used as a biomarker for diagnosis of numerous inflammatory disorders. Here we describe the role of S100A8/A9 in inflammatory collateral tissue…

Symbiotic Photosynthetic Oxygenation within 3D-Bioprinted Vascularized Tissues

In this study, we present the photosynthetic oxygen (O(2)) supply to mammalian cells within a volumetric extracellular matrix-like construct, whereby a three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinted fugitive pattern encapsulating unicellular green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii), served as a natural photosynthetic O(2)-generator. The presence of bioprinted C. reinhardtii enhanced the viability and functionality of mammalian cells while reducing the hypoxic conditions within the tissues. We…

Genomic Insights of Multidrug-Resistant <em>Escherichia coli</em> From Wastewater Sources and Their Association With Clinical Pathogens in South Africa

There is limited information on the comparative genomic diversity of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from wastewater. We sought to characterize environmental E. coli isolates belonging to various pathotypes obtained from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and its receiving waters using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and an array of bioinformatics tools to elucidate the resistomes, virulomes, mobilomes, clonality, and phylogenies. Twelve multidrug-resistant (MDR) diarrheagenic E. coli…

Proteomic Analyses of <em>Acinetobacter baumannii</em> Clinical Isolates to Identify Drug Resistant Mechanism

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the main causes of nosocomial infections. Increasing numbers of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii cases have been reported in recent years, but its antibiotic resistance mechanism remains unclear. We studied 9 multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 10 drug-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates using Label free, TMT labeling approach and glycoproteomics analysis to identify proteins related to drug resistance. Our results showed that 164 proteins…

Overexpression of ABCC1 Confers Drug Resistance to Betulin

Betulin is a lupane-type pentacyclic triterpene, which is isolated from birch bark. It has a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-bacterial activity. Herein, we explored the factors that may result in betulin resistance, especially with respect to its interaction with ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 1 (ABCC1). ABCC1 is an important member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, which is…