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marzo 19, 2021

Exposure to Sublethal Ciprofloxacin Induces Resistance to Ciprofloxacin and Cross-Antibiotics, and Reduction of Fitness, Biofilm Formation, and Apx Toxin Secretion in <em>Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae</em>

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is increasingly resistant to antibiotics. However, little is known about the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in this pathogen. In this study, we experimentally evolved the reference strain of both A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 1 and serovar 7, the most prevalent serovars worldwide, to quinolone resistance by sequential exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin. The adaptive…

Effect of physicochemical parameters on the stability and activity of garlic alliinase and its use for in-situ allicin synthesis

Garlic is a well-known example of natural self-defence system consisting of an inactive substrate (alliin) and enzyme (alliinase) which, when combined, produce highly antimicrobial allicin. Increase of alliinase stability and its activity are of paramount importance in various applications relying on its use for in-situ synthesis of allicin or its analogues, e.g., pulmonary drug delivery, treatment of superficial injuries, or urease inhibitors in fertilizers. Here, we discuss the effect of…

Impact of Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness on Treatment of Critically Ill Septic Patients in a Low-Resource Medical Intensive Care Unit

Introduction: Treatment of sepsis and septic shock can be a challenge even for intensive care units (ICUs) in high income countries, but it is especially difficult for ICUs with limited resources. Aim: To evaluate the impact of CERTAIN on treatment of critically ill septic patients in low-resource medical ICU. Materials and Methods: In a before-and-after study design, we compared clinical outcomes, processes, and complications (hospital acquired infections) 1 year before and 2 years after (2016…

Should Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Based on the Vancomycin Area Under the Concentration-Time Curve Be Standard for Serious Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections?-No

In this counterpoint we critically appraise the evidence supporting therapeutic drug monitoring based on the vancomycin 24-hour area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. We reveal methodologically weaknesses and inconsistencies in the data and suggest that, in the absence of clear and convincing evidence of benefit compared with modestly reducing trough targets, alternative strategies are more likely to result in superior…

Does Fluoroquinolones and Third-Generation Cephalosporins Restriction Reverse Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> Resistance Rates?

Aim: To decrease the incidence and resistance rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) by restriction of the use of third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) and fluoroquinolones. Methods: Consumption of 3GCs, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems in association with ertapenem and fluoroquinolone-resistant KP isolates, were analyzed in 21 months by autoregressive integrated moving average models. A follow-up analysis was performed 5 years later. Results: Consumption of…

Mechanisms of Candida Resistance to Antimycotics and Promising Ways to Overcome It: The Role of Probiotics

Pathogenic Candida and infections caused by those species are now considered as a serious threat to public health. The treatment of candidiasis is significantly complicated by the increasing resistance of pathogenic strains to current treatments and the stagnant development of new antimycotic drugs. Many species, such as Candida auris, have a wide range of resistance mechanisms. Among the currently used synthetic and semi-synthetic antifungal drugs, the most effective are azoles, echinocandins,…

Semisynthesis and Biological Evaluation of Platencin Thioether Derivatives: Dual FabF and FabH Inhibitors against MRSA

The discovery and clinical use of multitarget monotherapeutic antibiotics is regarded as a promising approach to reduce the development of antibiotic resistance. Platencin (PTN), a potent natural antibiotic initially isolated from a soil actinomycete, targets both FabH and FabF, the initiation and elongation condensing enzymes for bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. However, its further clinical development has been hampered by poor pharmacokinetics. Herein we report the semisynthesis and…