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marzo 23, 2021

Assessing the bioactive profile of anti-fungal loaded calcium sulfate against fungal biofilms

Calcium sulfate (CS) has been used clinically as a bone or void filling biomaterial, and due to its resorptive properties have provided the prospect for its use as a release mechanism for local antibiotics to control biofilms. Here, we aimed to test CS beads loaded with three antifungal drugs against planktonic and sessile fungal species to assess whether these antifungal beads could be harnessed to provide consistent release of antifungals at biofilm inhibitive doses.A panel of different fungal…

Role of organic anion transporter 3 in the renal excretion of biapenem and potential drug-drug interactions

Biapenem is a carbapenem antibiotic. It is excreted predominantly through the kidney as unchanged forms. However, the molecular mechanism of renal excretion of biapenem and potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) were still unknown. In the present study, the role of organic anion transporters (OAT) 1/3 and organic cation transporters (OCT) 2 in the renal excretion of biapenem, and the potential DDIs between biapenem and six clinical commonly prescribed antibiotics and antiviral drugs that acted…

Blood stream infections during the first wave of COVID-19. A short microbiological retrospective picture at Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy

This paper aims to describe the etiology of bloodstream infections in COVID-19, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy. Two periods were evaluated: February 22-May 21, 2019/2020. We considered: the number of patients and blood culture sets, species of isolates (bacteria, specifically those indicated by EARS criteria; CoNS; Candida albicans) and their antibiotic sensitivity. In 2020 Escherichia coli and Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae disappeared. Candida albicans and MDR…

Combination of long-acting TRAIL and tumor cell-targeted photodynamic therapy as a novel strategy to overcome chemotherapeutic multidrug resistance and TRAIL resistance of colorectal cancer

Chemotherapeutic multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major hindrance for clinical therapy of colorectal cancer (CRC). Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) with selective cytotoxicity might overcome MDR of CRC cells. Unfortunately, cross-resistance to TRAIL has been detected in many CRC cells, suggesting the need to combine TRAIL with sensitizers to combat refractory CRC. Our purpose is to explore the potential of combination therapy of TRAIL and tumor-cell targeted…

Capric acid secreted by Saccharomyces boulardii influences the susceptibility of Candida albicans to fluconazole and amphotericin B

The effect of capric acid, secreted by the probiotic yeasts Saccharomyces boulardii, was evaluated on the activities of fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB) against pathogenic Candida albicans fungus. The findings indicated that capric acid may be a promising additive for use in combination with FLC. A FLC-capric acid combination led to reduced efflux activity of multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter Cdr1p by causing it to relocalize from the plasma membrane (PM) to the interior of the…

Value of routine whole genome sequencing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance detection

Routine whole genome sequencing (WGS) of pathogens is becoming more feasible as sequencing costs decrease and access to benchtop sequencing equipment and bioinformatics pipelines increases. This study examined the added value gained from implementing routine WGS of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in New South Wales, Australia. Drug resistance markers inferred from WGS data were compared to commercial genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) assays and conventional phenotypic DST in…

Outcome of treatment of MDR-TB or drug-resistant patients treated with bedaquiline and delamanid: Results from a large global cohort

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends countries introduce new anti-TB drugs in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The aim of the study is to prospectively evaluate the effectiveness of bedaquiline (and/or delamanid)- containing regimens in a large cohort of consecutive TB patients treated globally. This observational, prospective study is based on data collected and provided by Global Tuberculosis Network (GTN) centres and analysed twice a year. All consecutive patients…

Candida pathogens induce protective mitochondria-associated type I interferon signalling and a damage-driven response in vaginal epithelial cells

Vaginal candidiasis is an extremely common disease predominantly caused by four phylogenetically diverse species: Candida albicans; Candida glabrata; Candida parapsilosis; and Candida tropicalis. Using a time course infection model of vaginal epithelial cells and dual RNA sequencing, we show that these species exhibit distinct pathogenicity patterns, which are defined by highly species-specific transcriptional profiles during infection of vaginal epithelial cells. In contrast, host cells exhibit…

Designing a leucine-rich antibacterial nonapeptide with potent activity against mupirocin-resistant MRSA via a structure-activity relationship study

Staphylococcus aureus is the main etiological agent responsible for the majority of human skin infections. Of particular concern is the methicillin-resistant variety, commonly known as MRSA. The extensive use of the first-line topical antibiotic of choice, mupirocin, has inevitably resulted in the emergence of resistant strains, signalling an urgent need for the development of new antibacterials with new mechanisms of action. In this work, we describe how we designed a novel cationic…