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marzo 25, 2021

Issues in Antibiotic Therapy for Hospital-Acquired and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Emerging Concepts to Improve Outcomes

IntroductionVentilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) result in significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms has complicated the matter, as many of these pathogens now represent key causes of VAP and HAP. While a number of new medications have been approved, a comprehensive appreciation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles, which, are often neglected, is key to effective treatment.Areas coveredThe authors…

In vitro Optimization of Ceftazidime/Avibactam for KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

Ceftazidime/avibactam is an important treatment option for infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp), however, resistance can emerge during treatment. The objective of the study was to define the ceftazidime/avibactam concentrations required to suppress bacterial regrowth in ceftazidime/avibactam susceptible isolates and identify active therapies against ceftazidime/avibactam-resistant KPC-Kp. Time-kill assays were performed against twelve ST258…

Detection of <em>bla</em> <sub>OXA-1</sub>, <em>bla</em> <sub>TEM-1</sub>, and Virulence Factors in <em>E. coli</em> Isolated From Seals

Marine mammals are frequently considered good sentinels for human, animal and environmental health due to their long lifespan, coastal habitat, and characteristics as top chain predators. Using a One Health approach, marine mammals can provide information that helps to enhance the understanding of the health of the marine and coastal environment. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the quintessential One Health problem that poses a well-recognised threat to human, animal, and ecosystem health…

Resistance to Second-Line Anti-TB Drugs in Cambodia: A Phenotypic and Genetic Study

CONCLUSION: This is the first description of SLD resistance in Cambodia. The data suggest that the proportion of XDR and pre-XDR isolates remains low but is on the rise compared to previous reports. The characterization of the XDR+ isolate in a patient who refused treatment underlines the risk of transmission in the population. In addition, genotypic results show, as expected, that the Beijing family is the main involved in pre-XDR and XDR isolates and that the spread of the Beijing pre-XDR…

Extensively Drug-Resistant Hypervirulent <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> From a Series of Neonatal Sepsis in a Tertiary Care Hospital, India

The recent emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae with hypervirulent traits causing severe infections and considerable mortality is a global cause for concern. The challenges posed by these hypermucoviscous strains of K. pneumoniae with regard to their optimal treatment, management, and control policies are yet to be answered. We studied a series of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae ST5235 isolates with resistance to carbapenems and polymyxins…

Nondermatophyte Mold Onychomycosis

Nondermatophyte molds (NDM) onychomycosis is often difficult to diagnose as NDMs have been considered contaminants of nails. There are several diagnostic methods used to identify NDMs, however, repeated laboratory isolation at different time points is recommended to validate pathogenicity. With NDM and mixed infection (dermatophytes plus NDM) onychomycosis on the rise, accurate clinical diagnosis along with mycological tests are recommended. Systemic antifungal agents such as itraconazole and…