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marzo 29, 2021

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Trends of <em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em> by Age Groups Over Recent 10 Years in a Single Hospital in South Korea

CONCLUSION: Erythromycin and ceftriaxone resistance rates and the MDR rate of S. pneumoniae significantly increased during the recent 10 years; the trends in individual antimicrobial resistance rates significantly differed between the age groups. This study indicates the need for caution when using ceftriaxone as an empirical antimicrobial against pneumococcal infections.

Sanjie Yiliu Formula Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Growth by Suppression of Proliferation and Induction of Apoptosis

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. As current therapies toward CRC, including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, pose limitations, such as multidrug resistance (MDR) as well as the intrinsic and potential cytotoxic effects, necessitating to find more effective treatment options with fewer side effects, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has an advantage in complementary therapies. In the present study, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiozol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium…

Adverse events using shorter MDR-TB regimens: outcomes from Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

Evidence increasingly indicates that standardised, shorter regimens (SR) for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is effective in treating this global disease, but there is little published data on associated adverse events. We report outcomes from a cohort treated with the SR in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea (PNG). Among 26 patients treated with a TB SR from September 2017 to September 2018, 10 (39%) were successful treatments, 12 (46%) were failures, 2 died, and 2 were lost to follow-up. Of those…

Evaluation of risk factors associated with the development of MDR- and XDR-TB in a tertiary care hospital: a retrospective cohort study

CONCLUSIONS: Current study demonstrates a sizeable extent of resistant cases among pulmonary TB patients. This study presaged significant risk of DR-TB among females, young adults, unemployed, smokers, patients with previous treatment failure and cavitation on chest X-ray. Timely identification of high risk patients will give pronounced advantages regarding appropriate choices of prevention, treatment and disease control.

Xenografts derived from patients with head and neck cancer recapitulate patient tumour properties

Rodent models mimic the heterogeneity of head and neck cancer (HNC) malignancies and are used to investigate HNC-associated biomarkers and evaluate drug responses. To assess the utility of patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) as an HNC model, 18 tumour samples were obtained from surgical specimens of patients with HNC and implanted into non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mice. The histological features of PDXs and corresponding patient samples were compared. Furthermore, the present…

Antimicrobial-resistant non-typhoidal <em>Salmonella enterica</em> prevalence among poultry farms and slaughterhouses in Chitwan, Nepal

CONCLUSION: NTS is highly prevalent among Chitwan’s growing poultry industry with higher rates of positivity found in slaughterhouse samples compared with environmental samples from farms. In addition, a high rate of AMR (78%) was revealed, and an extremely concerning number of those were shown to be MDR (20%). This baseline data has important implications for poultry production and consumption in the region. Further research will elucidate the extent to which this contamination and drug…

Apatinib Combined with Irinotecan in the Treatment of Advanced Small-Cell Esophageal Carcinoma: A Case Report

Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for advanced small cell esophageal carcinoma (SCEC) characterized by poor prognosis. Preclinical studies demonstrated that apatinib has the potential to enhance the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and reverse multidrug resistance (MDR). This report described the application of apatinib combined with irinotecan as the third-line treatment for advanced SCEC in a 54-year-old male patient. His symptoms of upper abdominal pain and distension…

Antimicrobial Use Surveillance Indicators for Finfish Aquaculture Production: A Review

Quantification and tracking of antimicrobial use (AMU) are key factors for the development of responsible antimicrobial stewardship programs and comparison between countries. Global finfish aquaculture growth and increased AMU creates the potential for exchange of antimicrobial resistance between aquatic and terrestrial environments, making AMU surveillance imperative for this industry. The objective of this review is to collate current literature on AMU surveillance indicators and their…

Evaluation of a Multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship Program in a Saudi Critical Care Unit: A Quasi-Experimental Study

Background: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are collaborative efforts to optimize antimicrobial use in healthcare institutions through evidence-based quality improvement strategies. With regard to critically ill patients, appropriate antimicrobial usage is of significance, and any delay in therapy increases their risk of mortality. Therefore, the implementation of structured multidisciplinary ASPs in critical care settings is of the utmost importance to promote the judicious use of…