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abril 3, 2021

Molecular Basis of AmpC beta-Lactamase Induction by Avibactam in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: PBP Occupancy, Live Cell Binding Dynamics and Impact on Resistant Clinical Isolates Harboring PDC-X Variants

Avibactam belongs to the new class of diazabicyclooctane β-lactamase inhibitors. Its inhibitory spectrum includes class A, C and D enzymes, including P. aeruginosa AmpC. Nonetheless, recent reports have revealed strain-dependent avibactam AmpC induction. In the present work, we wanted to assess the mechanistic basis underlying AmpC induction and determine if derepressed PDC-X mutated enzymes from ceftazidime/avibactam-resistant clinical isolates were further inducible. We determined avibactam…

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Prophylactic Use of Ertapenem for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infections after Elective Colorectal Surgery

Standard surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) regimens are less effective in preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) due to rising antimicrobial resistance (AMR) rates, particularly for patients undergoing colorectal surgery. This study aimed to evaluate whether ertapenem should be a preferred strategy for the prevention of SSIs following elective colorectal surgery compared to three standard SAP regimens: amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, and cefazolin plus metronidazole. A…

New bone cements with Pluronic®F127 for prophylaxis and treatment of periprosthetic joint infections

In line with the increase in orthopedic prosthetic surgeries, there has been a significant rise in periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) bacteria. In case of infection, antibiotic-added spacers are temporarily placed into the periprosthetic region. With the release of antibiotics usually failing to work in fighting off infection, recent studies have centered around developing more effective approaches. New polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)…

The Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and the Occurrence of MRSA CC398 in Monkey Feces in a Zoo Park in Eastern China

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the important antibiotic resistant pathogens causing infections in humans and animals. The increasing observation of MRSA in wildlife species has raised the concern of its impact on animal health and the potential of zoonotic transmission. This study investigated the prevalence of S. aureus in fecal samples from non-human primates in a zoo located in Jiangsu, China, in which 6 out of 31 (19.4%) fecal samples, and 2 out of 14 (14.3%)…

Comparison of the Staphylococcal Chromosome Cassette (SCC) mec in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Non-aureus Staphylococci (MRNAS) from Animals and Humans

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and non-aureus staphylococci (MRNAS) cause different infections in animals, including mastitis, in livestock and humans. This study aimed to identify and compare the staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec (SCCmec) types of MRSA or MRNAS isolated from several animal species and humans in different countries. Of 1462 S. aureus and non-aureus staphylococci, 68 grew on Chrom MRSA ID^(®) agar, were phenotypically resistant to cefoxitin and tested…

The Emergence, Persistence, and Dissemination of Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria in Environmental Hajj Settings and Implications for Public Health

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is causing the loss of what was once considered the miracle cure. The transmission of antimicrobial resistance during mass gathering is a potential threat in addition to other infectious diseases. Here, we review the English language literature on the rate and the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance during the Hajj. There is a variable incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacteriaceae. There had been…

Trans-Cinnamaldehyde Exhibits Synergy with Conventional Antibiotic against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide and has acquired multiple resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. Hence, there is a pressing need to explore novel strategies to overcome the increase in antimicrobial resistance. The present study aims to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of plant-derived antimicrobials, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) in decreasing MRSA’s resistance to eight conventional antibiotics. A checkerboard dilution test and…

Reduced Susceptibility to Chlorhexidine among Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in Israel: Phenotypic and Genotypic Tolerance

Antiseptic use for body decolonization is the main activity applied to prevent healthcare-associated infections, including those caused by S. aureus. Consequentially, tolerance to several antiseptics such as chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) has developed. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of CHG tolerance among S. aureus strains in Israel and to evaluate factors that may affect this tolerance. Furthermore, it tested the associations between phenotypic and genotypic CHG tolerance. S….

A Cell-Free Screen for Bacterial Membrane Disruptors Identifies Mefloquine as a Novel Antibiotic Adjuvant

Antibacterial discovery efforts have lagged far behind the need for new antibiotics. An approach that has gained popularity recently is targeting bacterial phospholipid membranes. We leveraged the differences between bacterial and mammalian phospholipid compositions to develop a high-throughput screen that identifies agents that selectively disrupt bacterial membranes while leaving mammalian membranes intact. This approach was used to screen 4480 compounds representing a subset of the Maybridge…