Currently browsing

mayo 5, 2021

Self-delivery nanomedicine to overcome drug resistance for synergistic chemotherapy

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the prime reasons for the failure of cancer chemotherapy, which continues to be a great challenge to be solved. In this work, α-tocopherol succinate (α-TOS) and doxorubicin (DOX)-based self-delivery nanomedicine (designated as α-TD) is prepared to combat drug resistance for cancer synergistic chemotherapy. Carrier-free α-TD possesses a fairly high drug loading rate and improves the cellular uptake via the endocytosis pathway. More importantly, the apoptotic…

Binding of RNA m6A by IGF2BP3 triggers chemoresistance of HCT8 cells via upregulation of ABCB1

The overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporters subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) is known to be the primary trigger of multidrug resistance (MDR) in colorectal cancer (CRC), leading to chemotherapy failure. However, factors that regulate chemoresistance in CRC cells are largely unknown. To identify proteins involved in MDR in CRC, we used proteomics and transcriptomics approaches to analyze HCT8/T cells and parental HCT8 cells. Results showed that the expression of insulin-like growth…

Revisiting the inoculum effect for Streptococcus pyogenes with a hollow fibre infection model

Severe, invasive Streptococcus pyogenes (Strep A) infections result in greater than 500,000 deaths annually. First line treatment for such infections is benzylpenicillin, often with the addition of clindamycin, but treatment failure can occur with this regimen. This failure has been partially attributed to the inoculum effect, which presents as reduced antibiotic susceptibility during high bacterial density and plateau-phase growth. Hollow fibre infection models (HFIM) have been proposed as an…

Dimeric lipo-α/sulfono-γ-AA hybrid peptides as broad-spectrum antibiotic agents

There is an urgent need to develop novel antibiotic agents that can combat emerging drug resistance. Herein, we report the design and investigation of a class of short dimeric antimicrobial lipo-α/sulfono-γ-AA hybrid peptides. Some of these peptides exhibit potent and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity toward both clinically related Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The TEM study suggests that these hybrid peptides can compromise bacterial membranes and lead to bacterial death….

Predictors of breakthrough clinically significant cytomegalovirus infection during letermovir prophylaxis in high-risk hematopoietic cell transplant recipients

Letermovir prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients significantly reduces the incidence of clinically significant cytomegalovirus infection. However, breakthrough infections still occur despite adequate prophylaxis. In the present retrospective cohort study, we identified clinically relevant predictive factors for clinically significant CMV breakthrough infection during letermovir prophylaxis. Low-grade CMV replication (21-149 IU/ml), both at the time of letermovir…

Virulence Factors and Antifungal Susceptibility Profile of <em>C. tropicalis</em> Isolated from Various Clinical Specimens in Alexandria, Egypt

CONCLUSIONS: This study sought to provide useful data on the antifungal susceptibility of C. tropicalis isolates from ICU patients suffering from invasive infections with an increased trend towards elevated MICs levels of both fluconazole and voriconazole. Due to the high incidence of systemic candidiasis and antifungal resistance, C. tropicalis is emerging as a serious root of infections. Therefore, early and accurate identification of Candida species along with susceptibility testing is of…

Identifying Risk Factors for Lower Reproductive Tract Infections among Women Using Reusable Absorbents in Odisha, India

A large proportion of women in Odisha, India, use reusable absorbents to manage their menstruation. Yet, the risk factors for lower reproductive tract infections (RTIs) related to menstrual hygiene management (MHM) have not been studied among reusable absorbent users. Women of reproductive age attending one of two hospitals from two different cities in Odisha during two separate study intervals were recruited for the study. Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal…

Antifungal Activity of Novel Formulations Based on Terpenoid Prodrugs against <em>C. albicans</em> in a Mouse Model

Carvacrol (CAR), a phenolic monoterpenoid, has been extensively investigated for its antimicrobial and antifungal activity. As a result of its poor physicochemical properties, water soluble carvacrol prodrugs (WSCPs) with improved water solubility were previously synthesized and found to possess antimicrobial activity. Here, three novel CAR analogs, WSCP1, WSCP2, and WSCP3, were tested against fluconazole (FLU)-sensitive and -resistant strains where they showed greater antifungal activity than…

The Current State of Antifungal Stewardship in Immunocompromised Populations

Inappropriate antifungal use is prevalent and can lead to drug-resistant fungi, expose patients to adverse drug events, and increase healthcare costs. While antimicrobial stewardship programs have traditionally focused on antibiotic use, the need for targeted antifungal stewardship (AFS) intervention has garnered interest in recent years. Despite this, data on AFS in immunocompromised patient populations is limited. This paper will review the current state of AFS in this complex population and…