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mayo 30, 2021

Pulmonary Nocardia infection in a child with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

CONCLUSIONS: Nocardia infection should be considered in the differential diagnoses for IPH patients receiving corticosteroid therapy, especially in patients with poor response to conventional empirical antibiotic therapy. Next-generation sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid may be used to quickly identify the Nocardia. Sulfonamides or linezolid are effective for pediatric pulmonary Nocardia infection.

Whole-genome analysis uncovers loss of blaZ associated to carriage isolates belonging to MRSA clone ST5-VI in Cape Verde

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the genome data allowed to place isolates into a phylogenetic context, and to identify different blaZ gene deletions associated to plasmid or transposons loss. Genomic analysis unveiled adaptation and evolution trends, namely among emerging MRSA lineages in the country, which deserves additional consideration in the design of future infection control protocols.

Genetic predisposition to mucocutaneous fungal infections

Mucocutaneous fungal infections are common and usually occur in the presence of certain risk factors. However, these infections can occur in patients with no known risk factors. This indicates the presence of an underlying genetic susceptibility to fungi reflecting an innate or adaptive immune deficiency. In this review, we highlight genetic factors that predispose to mucocutaneous fungal infections specially candidiasis and dermatophytosis.

Impact of the FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis panel on antimicrobial duration among patients with suspected central nervous system infection

Ten controlled studies evaluated antimicrobial use following implementation of the FilmArray meningitis and encephalitis panel versus usual care. Only one-half of studies identified significant reductions in antibiotic duration, with 8/10 reporting modest reductions for acyclovir. Coupling the FilmArray meningitis and encephalitis panel with interventions by antimicrobial stewardship programs may help enhance its clinical impact.

Patterns of antibiotic use in hospital-acquired infections

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a baseline of antimicrobial use in relation to microbiological information in patients with the most common HAI. These results can serve to direct future effort of antimicrobial stewardship. Our work could be extended to a broader population, notably in Europe where similar surveys have been conducted.