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junio 5, 2021

Investigation of biofilm formation in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus associated with bacteraemia in a tertiary hospital

Biofilm formation is an important physiological process in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) that can cause infections in humans. In this study, the ability of 36 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates to form biofilm was studied based on genotypic and phenotypic approaches. These isolates were genotyped based on the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) and biofilm-associated genes (icaAD) via polymerase chain reactions. Phenotyping was…

Molecular characterization of multidrug resistant Enterobacterales strains isolated from liver and kidney transplant recipients in Spain

The objective of this study was to analyse the mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems and other extended-spectrum-β-lactams and to determine the genetic relatedness of multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales (MDR-E) causing colonization or infection in solid-organ transplantation (SOT) recipients. Prospective cohort study in kidney (n = 142), liver (n = 98) or kidney/pancreas (n = 7) transplant recipients between 2014 and 2018 in seven Spanish hospitals. We included 531 MDR-E isolates from rectal…

Validation of MALDI-TOF for the early detection of the ST175 high-risk clone of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical isolates belonging to a Spanish nationwide multicenter study

CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF spectra analysis using a model based on the presence of two biomarker peaks proved to maintain high sensitivity and specificity for early detection of the ST175 HRC in a large collection of isolates from all Spanish regions. These data support the use of this model in a clinical setting; however, the consequences of detection of the ST175 HRC, such as choice of empirical antibiotic therapy, must be consistent with local epidemiology and the prevalence of certain resistance…

Pediatric Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: clinical spectrum and predictors of poor outcome

CONCLUSIONS: High SAB incidence was demonstrated, with at-risk populations identified for future prioritized care. For the first time in a pediatric setting, necrotizing pneumonia and multifocal infection were predictors of mortality, whilst ID consultation was protective. The need to re-evaluate pediatric vancomycin trough-targets and limit unnecessary empiric-vancomycin exposure, to reduce poor outcomes and nephrotoxicity is highlighted. One in three children experienced considerable SAB…

Drug resistance, fitness and compensatory mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

For tuberculosis to be eradicated, the transmission of Multi-Drug-Resistant and eXtensively Drug Resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR and XDR-TB) must be considerably reduced. Drug resistant strains were initially thought to have reduced fitness, and the majority of resistant strains may actually have compromised fitness because they are found in only one or a few patients. In contrast, some MDR/XDR-TB strains are highly transmitted and cause large outbreaks. Most antibiotics…

Escherichia coli enhances the virulence factors of Candida albicans, the cause of vulvovaginal candidiasis, in a dual bacterial/fungal biofilm

Co-infection with other microorganisms can promote the Candida albicans to be invasive. In this study, Escherichia coli and C. albicans were co-isolated from the women with candidiasis symptoms. The in vitro effects of E. coli on C. albicans hypha development, biofilm formation, antibiotic susceptibility, dispersion from the biofilm, expression of Als3, Hwp1, and Tup1 genes, and pathogenesis in Galleria mellonella were investigated. Electron microscopic images revealed that hypha induction was…