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junio 11, 2021

Chronic Demodicosis in Patients with Immune Dysregulation: An Unexpected Infectious Manifestation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)1 Gain-of-Function

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations are known to induce immune dysregulation and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMCC). Previous reports suggest an association between demodicosis and STAT1 GOF. However, immune characterization of these patients is lacking. Here, we present a retrospective analysis of patients with immune dysregulation and STAT1 GOF who presented with facial and ocular demodicosis. In-depth immune phenotyping…

Successful Isavuconazole Salvage Therapy for a Cryptococcus deuterogattii (AFLP6/VGII) Disseminated Infection in a European Immunocompetent Patient

Members of the Cryptococcus gattii species complex are notorious causes of cryptococcosis as they often cause severe, life-threatening infections. Here we describe a case of a severe disseminated C. deuterogattii infection in a previously healthy patient who was initially treated with amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine and fluconazole, which led to a good neurological response, but the infection in the lungs remained unaltered and was not completely resolved until switching the antifungal therapy…

Predicting ventilator-associated pneumonia with machine learning

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common and fatal nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). Existing methods for identifying VAP display low accuracy, and their use may delay antimicrobial therapy. VAP diagnostics derived from machine learning (ML) methods that utilize electronic health record (EHR) data have not yet been explored. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of a variety of ML models trained to predict whether VAP will be diagnosed…

Investigation of an outbreak of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica on a pediatric intensive care unit

Objective: This paper reports an Elizabethkingia meningoseptica outbreak on a pediatric intensive care unit with emphasis on investigation of outbreak source, infection control interventions, patient characteristics and comparative antimicrobial susceptibility results. Methods: This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted in a university hospital 20-bed pediatric intensive care unit. Patient ages ranged from 4 to 11 months, with a median age of 9 months. 83% of the patients had severe…

High pyocyanin production and non-motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates are correlated with septic shock or death in bacteremic patients

Studies of the outcome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia (Pab) have focused mainly on antibiotic appropriateness. However, P. aeruginosa possesses many virulence factors whose roles in outcomes have not been examined in humans, except for the type III secretion system (T3SS) toxins. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of virulence factors other than the T3SS toxins. Bacterial isolates were collected from 75 patients who suffered from Pa blood stream infections. Host factors such…

Rapid detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis based on allele-specific recombinase polymerase amplification and colorimetric detection

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses a serious threat to TB control. Early diagnosis and proper treatment are essential factors to limit the spread of the disease. The existing molecular tests for MDR-TB usually require specific instruments, steady power supply, and routine maintenance, which might be obstacles for low-resource settings. This study aimed to develop allele-specific isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (allele-specific RPA) to simultaneously detect the most…

Retrospective study of the efficacy of vascularized tissue transfer for treating antibiotic-resistant bacteria-infected wound: Comparison with clean and antibiotic-sensitive bacteria-infected wound

If wounds are infected with bacteria resistant to an empirical antibiotic regimen, effective wound treatment will be delayed. This can delay wound healing and lengthen hospital stays, increasing the costs to patients. Long-term antibiotic use can also result in minor and major complications, such as diarrhea, antibiotic resistance, or life-threatening leukopenia. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria make wound treatment even more difficult. Traditionally, surgeons thought that adequate infection…

Ozone nanobubble treatments improve survivability of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with a pathogenic multi-drug-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

A rapid increase in multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in aquaculture highlights the risk of production losses due to diseases and potential public health concerns. Previously, we reported that ozone nanobubbles (NB-O(3) ) were effective at reducing concentrations of pathogenic bacteria in water and modulating fish immunity against pathogens; however, multiple treatments with direct NB-O(3) exposures caused alterations to the gills of exposed fish. Here, we set up a modified recirculation…