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junio 15, 2021

Genetic Alterations Associated with Polymyxin B Resistance in Nosocomial KPC-2-Producing <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> from Brazil

The rapid increased multidrug resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae has led to a renewed interest in polymyxin antibiotics, such as colistin, as antibiotics of last resort, not least in low/middle income countries. We conducted a genomic survey of clinical polymyxin-resistant K. pneumoniae to investigate the genetic alterations in isolates harboring bla(KPC-2). Whole-genome sequencing was performed using an Illumina NextSeq 500 paired-end reads. Mutations and insertion sequence detection were…

Colistin Susceptibility Testing by Rapid Colistin Disk Elution Test Among Enterobacteriaceae in Low-Resource Setting

We modified rapid polymyxin Nordmann-Poirel (RPNP) test, called rapid colistin disk elution (RCDE) test, for detecting colistin resistance in Gram-negative bacilli and evaluated its performance compared with colistin broth disk elution (CBDE) test recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The RCDE test was performed by using a 10-μg colistin disk in 2.7 mL volume (final colistin concentration of 3.7 μg/mL) of either cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth or phenol red…

In vivo evaluation of temperature-responsive antimicrobial-loaded PNIPAAm hydrogels for prevention of surgical site infection

Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a persistent clinical challenge. Local antimicrobial delivery may reduce the risk of SSI by increasing drug concentrations and distribution in vulnerable surgical sites compared to what is achieved using systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis alone. In this work, we describe a comprehensive in vivo evaluation of the safety and efficacy of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-dimethylbutyrolactone acrylamide-co-Jeffamine M-1000 acrylamide) [PNDJ], an injectable…

The membrane-targeting mechanism of host defense peptides inspiring the design of polypeptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles exhibiting effective antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are a grand challenge to global medical and health systems. Therefore, it is urgent to develop versatile antibacterial strategies that can combat bacterial resistance without displaying toxicity. Here, we synthesize antibacterial polypeptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles that exhibit potent antibacterial activities against clinically isolated multiple drug resistance Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and…

Rapid diagnostic testing for antimicrobial stewardship: Utility in Asia Pacific

Rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) can provide prompt, accurate identification of infectious organisms and be a key component of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs. However, their use is less widespread in Asia Pacific than western countries. Cost can be prohibitive, particularly in less resource-replete settings. A selective approach is required, possibly focusing on the initiation of antimicrobials, for differentiating bacterial versus viral infections and identifying locally relevant…

Synthetic conjugate peptide Fba-Met6 (MP12) induces complement-mediated resistance against disseminated Candida albicans

The fungal genus Candida includes common commensals of the human mucosal membranes, and the most prevalently isolated species, C. albicans, poses a threat of candidemia and disseminated infection associated with an unacceptably high mortality rate and an immense $4 billion burden (US) yearly. Nevertheless, the demand for a vaccine remains wholly unfulfilled and increasingly pressing. We developed a double-peptide construct that is feasible for use in humans with the intention of preventing…

Promoting cross-regional collaboration in antimicrobial stewardship: Findings of an infectious diseases working group survey in Arab countries of the Middle East

CONCLUSIONS: This paper highlights the urgency of addressing antimicrobial resistance in Arab countries of the Middle East. The Working Group identified key barriers to effective management which may guide the development of future coherent strategies to promote effective antimicrobial stewardship in the region. Here, we outline a call to action for the region, with a need to focus on training and education, capacity building, infrastructure, regional research, and regional surveillance.