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julio 24, 2021

Anti-HIV and Anti-Candidal Effects of Methanolic Extract from <em>Heteropterys brachiata</em>

Nowadays, the HIV pandemic is far from controlled. HIV+/AIDS patients show a serious risk of developing resistance to HIV antiretroviral drugs and to be orally colonized by albicans and non-albicans Candida strains resistant to antifungals. As a consequence, new drugs that possess anti-candidal and anti-HIV effects would represent an alternative in the comprehensive treatment of HIV+/AIDS patients. The present study evaluates the possible anti-HIV and anti-Candida effects of a methanolic extract…

Candida Chorioamnionitis in Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Report of Two Cases

Background:Candida chorioamnionitis is rarely encountered, even though vulvovaginal candidiasis incidence is about 15%. Interestingly, it has characteristic gross and histological findings on the umbilical cord that are not to be missed. Case Report: We report two cases of Candida chorioamnionitis with presence of multiple yellowish and red spots of the surface of the umbilical cord. Microscopically, these consist of microabscesses with evidence of fungal yeasts and pseudohyphae. The yeasts and…

Clinical predictive models of invasive Candida infection: a systematic literature review

Clinical predictive models (CPM) serve to identify and categorize patients into risk categories to assist in treatment and intervention recommendations. Predictive accuracy and practicality of models varies depending on methods used for their development, and should be evaluated.The aim of this study was to summarize currently available CPM for invasive candidiasis, analyze their performance, and assess their suitability for use in clinical decision making.We identified studies that described…

Oxazolidinone Antibiotics: Chemical, Biological and Analytical Aspects

This review covers the main aspects concerning the chemistry, the biological activity and the analytical determination of oxazolidinones, the only new class of synthetic antibiotics advanced in clinical use over the past 50 years. They are characterized by a chemical structure including the oxazolidone ring with the S configuration of substituent at C5, the acylaminomethyl group linked to C5 and the N-aryl substituent. The synthesis of oxazolidinones has gained increasing interest due to their…

Laboratory evolution of Mycobacterium on agar plates for analysis of resistance acquisition and drug sensitivity profiles

Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a growing public health problem. There is an urgent need for information regarding cross-resistance and collateral sensitivity relationships among drugs and the genetic determinants of anti-TB drug resistance for developing strategies to suppress the emergence of drug-resistant pathogens. To identify mutations that confer resistance to anti-TB drugs in Mycobacterium species, we performed the laboratory evolution of nonpathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis, which…

Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Confidence of Penicillin Allergies Following Focused Didactic Instruction and Simulation

Objective To evaluate pharmacy students’ knowledge and confidence regarding penicillin allergy assessment and skin testing (PAAST) before and after a focused didactic instruction and simulation (FDIS).Methods A multicenter, quasi-experimental, cross-sectional survey study was performed among pharmacy students before and after FDIS on PAAST at two schools of pharmacy. The FDIS on PAAST consisted of an infectious disease faculty-led seminar, student-led penicillin allergy counseling interviews,…

Individualized antifungal therapy in critically ill patients with invasive fungal infection

Invasive candidiasis (IC) is the most common invasive fungal infection (IFI) affecting critically ill patients, followed by invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). International guidelines provide different recommendations for a first-line antifungal therapy and, in most of them, echinocandins are considered the first-line treatment for IC, and triazoles are so for the treatment of IPA. However, liposomal amphotericinB (L-AmB) is still considered a second-line therapy for both clinical entities….

Biodegradable Nanofibrous Membranes for Medical and Personal Protection Applications: Manufacturing, Anti-COVID-19 and Anti-Multidrug Resistant Bacteria Evaluation

Biodegradable nanofibrous hybrid membranes of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with ZnO and CuO nanoparticles were manufactured and characterized, and their anti-COVID-19 and anti-multidrug resistant bacteria activities were also evaluated. The morphological structures of the prepared PVA composites nanofibers were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), which revealed a homogenous pattern of the developed nanofibers, with an average fibrous diameter of 200-250 nm. Moreover, the results of the…

Ganciclovir and Its Hemocompatible More Lipophilic Derivative Can Enhance the Apoptotic Effects of Methotrexate by Inhibiting Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP)

Efflux transporters, namely ATP-binding cassette (ABC), are one of the primary reasons for cancer chemoresistance and the clinical failure of chemotherapy. Ganciclovir (GCV) is an antiviral agent used in herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene therapy. In this therapy, HSV-TK gene is delivered together with GCV into cancer cells to activate the phosphorylation process of GCV to active GCV-triphosphate, a DNA polymerase inhibitor. However, GCV interacts with efflux transporters that…

Bactericidal Activity of a Self-Biodegradable Lysine-Containing Dendrimer against Clinical Isolates of <em>Acinetobacter</em> Genus

The genus Acinetobacter consists of Gram-negative obligate aerobic pathogens, including clinically relevant species, such as A. baumannii, which frequently cause hospital infections, affecting debilitated patients. The growing resistance to antimicrobial therapies shown by A. baumannii is reaching unacceptable levels in clinical practice, and there is growing concern that the serious conditions it causes may soon become incurable. New therapeutic possibilities are, therefore, urgently needed to…