Indian J Med Microbiol. 2019 Oct-Dec;37(4):478-487. doi: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_34. Epub 2020 Dec 4.
Staphylococcus aureus is of significant clinical concern in both community- and hospital-onset infections. The key to the success of S. aureus as a pathogen is its ability to swiftly develop antimicrobial resistance. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is not only resistant to nearly all beta-lactams but also demonstrates resistance to several classes of antibiotics. A high prevalence of MRSA is seen across worldwide. For many decades, vancomycin remained as gold standard antibiotic for the treatment of MRSA infections. In the past decades, linezolid, daptomycin, ceftaroline and telavancin received regulatory approval for the treatment of infections caused by resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Although these drugs may offer some advantages over vancomycin, they also have significant limitations. These includes vancomycin's slow bactericidal activity, poor lung penetration and nephrotxicity;linezolid therapy induced myelosuppression and high cost of daptomycin greatly limits their clinical use. Moreover, daptomycin also gets inactivated by lung naturally occurring surfactants. Thus, currently available therapeutic options are unable to provide safe and efficacious treatment for those patients suffering from hospital-acquired pneumonia, bloodstream infections (BSIs), bone and joint infections and diabetic foot infections (DFI). An unmet need also exists for a safe and efficacious oral option for switch-over convenience and community treatment. Herein, the review is intended to describe the supporting role of anti-staphylococcal antibiotics used in the management of S. aureus infections with a special reference to levonadifloxacin. Levonadifloxacin and its prodrug alalevonadifloxacin are novel benzoquinolizine subclass of quinolone with broad-spectrum of anti-MRSA activity. It has been recently approved for the treatment of complicated skin and soft-tissue infection as well as concurrent bacteraemia and DFI in India.