Phytomedicine. 2021 Feb 25;85:153528. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153528. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expression plays a vital role in not only systemic drug bioavailability but also cancer multi-drug resistance (MDR). Develop functional inhibitors of P-gp can conquer both problems.
PURPOSE AND STUDY DESIGN: The aim of the present study was to research the P-gp modulating effects and MDR reversing ability of a novel flavonoid from Fissistigma cupreonitens, the underlying inhibitory mechanisms were further elucidated as well.
METHODS: Calcein-AM, rhodamine 123, and doxorubicin were fluorescent substrates for the evaluation of P-gp inhibitory function and detailed drug binding modes. Docking simulation was performed to reveal the in silico molecular bonding. ATPase assay and MDR1 shift assay were adopted to reveal the ATP consumption and conformational change of P-gp. The MDR reversing effects were demonstrated through cytotoxicity, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses.
RESULTS: 5‑hydroxy‑7,8‑dimethoxyflavanone inhibited the efflux of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin in a competitive manner, and increased the intracellular fluorescence of calcein at a concentration as low as 2.5 μg/ml. 5‑hydroxy‑7,8‑dimethoxyflavanone slightly changed P-gp's conformation and only stimulated ATPase at very high concentration (100 μg/ml). The docking results showed that 5‑hydroxy‑7,8‑dimethoxyflavanone and verapamil exhibited similar binding affinity to P-gp. The MDR reversing effects were prominent in the vincristine group, the reversal folds were 23.01 and 13.03 when combined with 10 μg/ml 5‑hydroxy‑7,8‑dimethoxyflavanone in the P-gp over-expressing cell line (ABCB1/Flp-In™-293) and MDR cancer cell line (KB/VIN), respectively.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that 5‑hydroxy‑7,8‑dimethoxyflavanone was a novel effective flavonoid in the P-gp efflux inhibition and in vitro cancer MDR reversion.