Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Feb 22:AAC.02032-20. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02032-20. Online ahead of print.
Isavuconazole (ISA) is an azole antifungal used in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. Patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment have lower clearance (CL) as compared to the healthy population. Currently, there is no data on ISA in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C). The purpose of this study was to build a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of intravenous ISA, and to predict changes in ISA disposition in different patient populations and in patients with hepatic impairment to guide personalized dosing. By incorporating the systemic and drug specific parameters of ISA, the model was initially developed in healthy population and validated with 10 independent PK profiles obtained from healthy subjects and from patients with normal liver function. The results showed a satisfactory predictive capacity, with most of the relative predictive errors being between ±30% for area under the curve (AUC) and Cmax The observed plasma concentration-time profiles of ISA were well described by the model predicted profiles. The model adequately predicted the reduced CL of ISA in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment. Furthermore, the model predicted a decrease in CL of about 60% in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore, we recommend reducing the dose by 50% in patients with severe hepatic impairment. The model also predicted differences in the PK of ISA between Caucasian and Asian population, with the CL ratio of 0.67 in Chinese vs Caucasian population. The developed PBPK model of ISA provides a reasonable approach for optimizing the dosage regimen in different ethnic populations and in patients with severe hepatic impairment.