World J Urol. 2021 Apr 11. doi: 10.1007/s00345-021-03694-6. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: To determine whether omitting antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) in TURB is safe in patients undergoing TURB without an indwelling pre-operative catheter/nephrostomy/DJ and a negative pre-operative urinary culture.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multi-centered randomized controlled trial (RCT) from 17-09-2017 to 31-12-2019 in 5 hospitals. Patients with a pre-operative indwelling catheter/DJ-stent or nephrostomy and a positive pre-operative urinary culture (> 104 uropathogens/mL) were excluded. Post-operative fever was defined as body temperature ≥ 38.3 °C. A non-inferiority design with a 6% noninferiority margin and null hypothesis (H0) that the infection risk is at least 6% higher in the experimental (E) than in the control (C) group; H0: C (AMP-group) - E (no AMP-group) ≥ Δ (6% noninferiority margin). A multivariable, logistic regression was performed for AMP and post-TURB fever with covariates: tumor size and (clot-) retention. The R Project® for statistical computing was used for statistical analysis and a p value of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
RESULTS: 459 Patients were included and 202/459 (44.1%) received AMP vs 257/459 (55.9%) without AMP. Fever occurred in 6/202 [2.9%; 95% CI (1.2-6.6%)] patients with AMP vs 8/257 [3.1%; 95% CI (1.5%-6.1%)] without AMP (p = 0.44). Multivariable, logistic regression showed no significant harm in omitting AMP when controlled for (clot-)retention and tumor size (p = 0.85) and an adjusted risk difference in developing post-TURB fever of 0.0016; 95% CI [- 0.029; 0.032].
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the safety of omitting AMP in patients undergoing TURB without an indwelling, pre-operative catheter/nephrostomy/DJ and a negative pre-operative urinary culture.