Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 5;11(1):13859. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-92622-0.
The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance have been of serious concern to human health and the management of bacterial infectious diseases. Effective treatment of these diseases requires the development of novel therapeutics, preferably free of side effects. In this regard, natural products are frequently conceived to be potential alternative sources for novel antibacterial compounds. Herein, we have evaluated the antibacterial activity of the epicarp extracts of the Malaysian cultivar of yellow rambutan fruit (Nephelium lappaceum L.) against six pathogens namely, Bacillus subtilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica. Among a series of solvent extracts, fractions of ethyl acetate and acetone have revealed significant activity towards all tested strains. Chemical profiling of these fractions, via HPLC, LC-MS and GC-MS, has generated a library of potentially bioactive compounds. Downstream virtual screening, pharmacological prediction, and receptor-ligand molecular dynamics simulation have eventually unveiled novel potential antibacterial compounds, which can be extracted for medicinal use. We report compounds like catechin, eplerenone and oritin-4-beta-ol to be computationally inhibiting the ATP-binding domain of the chaperone, DnaK of P. aeruginosa and MRSA. Thus, our work follows the objective to propose new antimicrobials capable of perforating the barrier of resistance posed by both the gram positives and the negatives.