Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2020 Aug 6;284:102230. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2020.102230. Online ahead of print.
The use of invasive medical devices is becoming more common nowadays, with catheters representing one of the most used medical devices. However, there is a risk of infection associated with the use of these devices, since they are made of materials that are prone to bacterial adhesion with biofilm formation, often requiring catheter removal as the only therapeutic option. Catheter-related urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) and central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are among the most common causes of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) worldwide while endotracheal intubation is responsible for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Therefore, to avoid the use of biocides due to the potential risk of bacterial resistance development, antifouling strategies aiming at the prevention of bacterial adherence and colonization of catheter surfaces represent important alternative measures. This review is focused on the main strategies that are able to modify the physical or chemical properties of biomaterials, leading to the creation of antiadhesive surfaces. The most promising approaches include coating the surfaces with hydrophilic polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(acrylamide) and poly(acrylates), betaine-based zwitterionic polymers and amphiphilic polymers or the use of bulk-modified poly(urethanes). Natural polysaccharides and its modifications with heparin, have also been used to improve hemocompatibility. Recently developed bioinspired techniques yielding very promising results in the prevention of bacterial adhesion and colonization of surfaces include slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) based on the superhydrophilic rim of the pitcher plant and the Sharklet topography inspired by the shark skin, which are potential candidates as surface-modifying approaches for biomedical devices. Concerning the potential application of most of these strategies in catheters, more in vivo studies and clinical trials are needed to assure their efficacy and safety for possible future use.