Med Mycol. 2021 Oct 8:myab058. doi: 10.1093/mmy/myab058. Online ahead of print.
The emergence of antifungal drug resistance in Candida species has led to increased morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Understanding species distribution and antifungal drug resistance patterns is an essential step for novel drug development. A systematic review was performed addressing this challenge in India with keywords inclusive of 'Candida', 'Antifungal Drug Resistance', 'Candidemia', 'Candidiasis' and 'India'. A total of 106 studies (January 1978-March 2020) from 20 Indian states were included. Of over 11,429 isolates, Candida albicans was the major species accounting for 37.95% of total isolates followed by C. tropicalis (29.40%), C. glabrata (11.68%) and C. parapsilosis (8.36%). Rates of antifungal resistance were highest in non-albicans Candida (NAC) species - C. haemuloni (47.16%), C. krusei (28.99%), C. lipolytica (28.89%) and C. glabrata (20.69%). Approximately 10.34% isolates of C. albicans were observed to be drug-resistant. Candida species were frequently resistant to certain azoles (ketoconazole-22.2%, miconazole-22.1% and fluconazole-21.8%). In conclusion, the present systematic review illustrates the overall distribution and antifungal resistance pattern of Candida species among the Indian population that could be helpful in the future for the formation of treatment recommendations for the region but also elsewhere.