An Pediatr (Barc). 2021 Mar 2:S1695-4033(21)00001-1. doi: 10.1016/j.anpedi.2020.11.031. Online ahead of print.
INTRODUCTION: Despite the current trend towards less aggressive therapeutic approaches, acute haematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) continues to be a challenge and is associated with significant morbidity worldwide. Our aim was to determine if 80% compliance with current protocol was achieved, identify complications and associated risk factors and analyse trends in aetiology and management of AHO in children.
METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal, observational, single-centre study in patients with AHO aged less than 18 years admitted to a paediatric hospital, between 2008 and 2018, divided into 2 cohorts (before and after 2014). Demographic, clinical data and disease progression were analysed.
RESULTS: The study included 71 children with AHO, 56% male, with a median age of 3 years (interquartile range, 1-11). We found a 1.8-fold increase of cases in the last 5 years. The causative agent was identified in 37% of cases: MSSA (54%), MRSA (4%), Streptococcus pyogenes (19%), Kingella kingae (12%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (8%), and Neisseria meningitidis (4%). Complications were identified in 45% of patients and sequelae in 3.6%. In recent years, there was an increase in myositis (30% vs. 7%; p=0.02), septic arthritis (68% vs. 37.2%; p=0.012) and in the proportion of patients treated for less than 4 weeks (37% vs. 3.5%; p=0.012), with a similar sequelae rates. The risk factors for complications were age 3 or more years, CRP levels of 20mg/l or higher, time elapsed between onset and admission of 5 or more days and positive culture, although on multivariate analysis only positive culture was significant. The presence of complications was a risk factor for sequelae at 6 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that AHO can be aggressive. The identification of risk factors for complications may be fundamental for management.