Drug Discov Today. 2021 Apr 9:S1359-6446(21)00167-7. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2021.03.031. Online ahead of print.
The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has created a crucial need for new therapeutics that avoid or minimize existing resistance mechanisms. In this review, we describe the development of novel classes of small-molecule adjunctive agents targeting either a bacterial virulence factor, the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system (T3SS), or an intrinsic resistance factor, resistance-nodulation-cell division superfamily (RND) efflux pumps of the Enterobacteriaceae. These agents are designed to be administered with antibacterials to improve their efficacy. T3SS inhibition rescues host innate immune system cells from injection with bacterial toxins, whereas RND efflux pump inhibition increases antibiotic susceptibility, in both cases improving the efficacy of the combined antibacterial.