Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and pulmonary mucormycosis.

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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and pulmonary mucormycosis.

Transpl Infect Dis. 2012 Dec;14(6):E166-72

Authors: Schneidawind D, Nann D, Vogel W, Faul C, Fend F, Horger M, Kanz L, Bethge W

Abstract
Mucormycosis is a serious invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised patients. Patients undergoing treatment for hematologic malignancies are predominantly prone to the pulmonary manifestation of mucormycosis. Historically, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients suffering from pulmonary mucormycosis (PM) was considered contraindicated owing to mortality rates up to 90%. We present 3 patients with acute myeloid leukemia and PM who were treated with radical surgical debridement combined with high-dose liposomal amphotericin B (LAB), and subsequently underwent successful allogeneic HCT. To date, all 3 patients are in complete remission and show no signs of mucormycosis. Allogeneic HCT in patients with PM seems feasible provided that the infectious focus is completely removed surgically and adequate antifungal pharmacotherapy, such as high-dose LAB or posaconazole, is established.

PMID: 23075207 [PubMed - in process]