An Overview of the Management of the Most Important Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients with Blood Malignancies.

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An Overview of the Management of the Most Important Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients with Blood Malignancies.

Infect Drug Resist. 2020;13:2329-2354

Authors: Shariati A, Moradabadi A, Chegini Z, Khoshbayan A, Didehdar M

Abstract
In patients with hematologic malignancies due to immune system disorders, especially persistent febrile neutropenia, invasive fungal infections (IFI) occur with high mortality. Aspergillosis, candidiasis, fusariosis, mucormycosis, cryptococcosis and trichosporonosis are the most important infections reported in patients with hematologic malignancies that undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These infections are caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens that do not cause severe issues in healthy individuals, but in patients with hematologic malignancies lead to disseminated infection with different clinical manifestations. Prophylaxis and creating a safe environment with proper filters and air pressure for patients to avoid contact with the pathogens in the surrounding environment can prevent IFI. Furthermore, due to the absence of specific symptoms in IFI, rapid and accurate diagnosis reduces the mortality rate of these infections and using molecular techniques along with standard mycological methods will improve the diagnosis of disseminated fungal infection in patients with hematologic disorders. Amphotericin B products, extended-spectrum azoles, and echinocandins are the essential drugs to control invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies, and according to various conditions of patients, different results of treatment with these drugs have been reported in different studies. On the other hand, drug resistance in recent years has led to therapeutic failures and deaths in patients with blood malignancies, which indicates the need for antifungal susceptibility tests to use appropriate therapies. Life-threatening fungal infections have become more prevalent in patients with hematologic malignancies in recent years due to the emergence of new risk factors, new species, and increased drug resistance. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the different dimensions of the most critical invasive fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies and present a list of these infections with different clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcomes.

PMID: 32765009 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]