J Clin Med. 2021 Mar 4;10(5):1068. doi: 10.3390/jcm10051068.
Infections in the ICU are often caused by Gram-negative bacteria. When these microorganisms are resistant to third-generation cephalosporines (due to extended-spectrum (ESBL) or AmpC beta-lactamases) or to carbapenems (for example carbapenem producing Enterobacteriales (CPE)), the treatment options become limited. In the last six years, fortunately, there have been new antibiotics approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with predominant activities against Gram-negative bacteria. We aimed to review these antibiotics: plazomicin, eravacycline, temocillin, cefiderocol, ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, meropenem/vaborbactam, and imipenem/relebactam. Temocillin is an antibiotic that was only approved in Belgium and the UK several decades ago. We reviewed the in vitro activities of these new antibiotics, especially against ESBL and CPE microorganisms, potential side effects, and clinical studies in complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI), intra-abdominal infections (cIAI), and hospital-acquired pneumonia/ventilator-associatedpneumonia (HAP/VAP). All of these new antibiotics are active against ESBL, and almost all of them are active against CPE caused by KPC beta-lactamase, but only some of them are active against CPE due to MBL or OXA beta-lactamases. At present, all of these new antibiotics are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for cUTI (except eravacycline) and most of them for cIAI (eravacycline, ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, and imipenem/relebactam) and for HAP or VAP (cefiderocol, ceftazidime/avibactam, ceftolozane/tazobactam, and imipenem/relebactam).