Antibiotic Prophylaxis Protocols and Surgical Site Infection Rates in Trauma Surgery: A Prospective Regional Study of 26,849 Procedures.

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Antibiotic Prophylaxis Protocols and Surgical Site Infection Rates in Trauma Surgery: A Prospective Regional Study of 26,849 Procedures.

Ulster Med J. 2019 May;88(2):111-114

Authors: Warnock M, Ogonda L, Yew P, McIlvenny G

Abstract
Introduction: Prophylactic antibiotics have been shown to reduce the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) 1, however there is little evidence supporting the effectiveness of one antibiotic over another. We have studied SSI rates and antibiotic prophylaxis protocols in Northern Ireland trauma surgery over a 10-year period to Identify the most effective antibiotic protocol associated with lowest rate of SSI.
Method: Antibiotic prophylaxis protocols from 2004-2014 were sought from each of the region's 4 trauma hospitals and their dates of introduction recorded. For the same period, the number of trauma procedures carried out quarterly and the number of SSIs were recorded for each hospital from the return of prospectively collected SSI surveillance forms.
Results: 26849 trauma procedures were included with an overall SSI rate of 1.34% (95% Confidence interval [CI] 1.21 to 1.49). Single dose flucloxacillin (2 grams) with single dose gentamicin (3mg/kg) was the most commonly used protocol used in 3 different hospitals for a combined 13.5 years covering 11445 procedures. The SSI rate was 0.72% (95% CI 0.58-0.89). Triple dose cefuroxime (1.5 grams) was used in 2 different hospitals for a combined 10 years covering 8864 procedures. The SSI rate for this regime was 2.46% (95% CI 2.16-2.80). Single dose cefuroxime (1.5 grams) was used in 2 different hospitals for a combined 8 years covering 6540 procedures. The SSI rate was 0.92% (95% CI 0.71-1.18).
Conclusion: In this prospective observational cohort study prophylaxis using flucloxacillin and gentamicin was associated with the lowest SSI rate. Single dose cefuroxime was associated with a lower rate of SSI compared to triple dose (p<0.001). Identification of antibiotic regimes associated with the lowest SSI rates will promote the judicious use of antibiotics, improve antibiotic stewardship while allowing for continued benefit in the prevention of SSI in an era of ever-increasing antibiotic resistance.

PMID: 31061560 [PubMed - in process]