Curr Microbiol. 2021 Apr 21. doi: 10.1007/s00284-021-02442-8. Online ahead of print.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) havoc is a global multifaceted crisis endowing a significant challenge for the successful eradication of devastating pathogens. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an enduring superbug involved in causing devastating infections. Although MRSA is a frequent colonizer of human skin, wound, and anterior nares, the intestinal colonization of MRSA has greatly increased the risk of inducing MRSA-associated colitis besides creating a conducive environment for horizontal transfer of resistant genes to commensal microbes. On the other hand, staphylococcal resistance to last-resort antibiotics has urged the development of novel antimicrobial agents for the effective decolonization of MRSA. In response, probiotics and their metabolites (postbiotics) have been proposed as the adjunct therapeutic avenues. Probiotics exhibit a multitude of anti-MRSA actions (anti-bacterial, anti-biofilm, anti-virulence, anti-drug resistance, co-aggregation, and anti-quorum sensing) through the production of numerous antagonistic compounds such as organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, low molecular weight compounds, biosurfactants, bacteriocins, and bacteriocins like inhibitory substances. Besides, probiotics stabilize the epithelial barrier function and positively modulate the host immune system via regulating various signal transduction mechanisms. Preclinical and human intervention studies have suggested that probiotics outcompete with MRSA by exhibiting anti-colonization mechanisms via protective, competitive, and displacement mode. In this review, we aim to highlight the dynamics of MRSA associated virulence and drug resistance properties, and how probiotics antagonize MRSA through various mechanism of action.