Antibiotics (Basel). 2021 Apr 15;10(4):444. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics10040444.
(1) Background: nasopharynx colonization by resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae can lead to serious diseases. Emerging resistance to antibiotics commonly used to treat infections due to these pathogens poses a serious threat to the health system. The present study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus and S. pneumoniae isolates from the febrile children's nasopharynx under 5 years in Nanoro (Burkina Faso). (2) Methods: bacterial isolates were identified from nasopharyngeal swabs prospectively collected from 629 febrile children. Antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus and S. pneumoniae isolates was assessed by Kirby-Bauer method and results were interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. (3) Results: bacterial colonization was confirmed in 154 (24.5%) of children of whom 96.1% carried S. aureus, 3.2% had S. pneumoniae, and 0.6% carried both bacteria. S. aureus isolates showed alarming resistance to penicillin (96.0%) and S. pneumoniae was highly resistant to tetracycline (100%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (83.3%), and moderately resistant to penicillin (50.0%). Furthermore, 4.0% of S. aureus identified were methicillin resistant. (4) Conclusion: this study showed concerning resistance rates to antibiotics to treat suspected bacterial respiratory tract infections. The work highlights the necessity to implement continuous antibiotic resistance surveillance.