Antibiotics with activity against intestinal anaerobes and the hazard of acquired colonization with ceftriaxone-resistant Gram-negative pathogens in ICU patients: a propensity score-based analysis.
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019 Jul 09;:
Authors: Boutrot M, Azougagh K, Guinard J, Boulain T, Barbier F
BACKGROUND: Intestinal colonization resistance is mainly exerted by commensal anaerobes.
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether exposure to non-carbapenem antibiotics with activity against intestinal anaerobes (namely, piperacillin/tazobactam, amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole) may promote the acquisition of gut colonization with ceftriaxone-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CFR-GNB) in ICU patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with a first stay >3 days in a single surgical ICU over a 30 month period were retrospectively included. Rectal carriage of CFR-GNB (i.e. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, AmpC-hyperproducing Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and CFR Acinetobacter baumannii) was routinely screened for at admission then weekly. The impact of anti-anaerobe antibiotics was investigated in propensity score (PS)-matched cohorts of patients exposed and not exposed to these drugs and through PS-based inverse probability of treatment weighting on the whole study cohort, treating in-ICU death or discharge as competing risks for CFR-GNB acquisition.
RESULTS: Among the 352 included patients [median ICU stay 16 (9-30) days, in-ICU mortality 12.2%], 120 (34.1%) acquired one or more CFR-GNB, mostly AmpC-hyperproducing Enterobacteriaceae (17.6%) and P. aeruginosa (14.8%). Exposure to anti-anaerobe antibiotics was the main predictor of CFR-GNB acquisition in both the PS-matched cohorts [adjusted HR (aHR) 3.92, 95% CI 1.12-13.7, P = 0.03] and the whole study cohort (aHR 4.30, 95% CI 1.46-12.63, P = 0.01). Exposure to other antimicrobials-especially ceftriaxone and imipenem/meropenem-exerted no independent impact on the likelihood of CFR-GNB acquisition.
CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to non-carbapenem antibiotics with activity against intestinal anaerobes may predispose to CFR-GNB acquisition in ICU patients. Restricting the use of these drugs appears to be an antibiotic stewardship opportunity.
PMID: 31289826 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]