J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021 Sep 4:S0091-6749(21)01356-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2021.08.016. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is recommended in patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEIs); however, little is known about immunogenicity and safety in these patients.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the impact of genetic diagnosis, age, and treatment on antibody response to COVID-19 vaccine and related adverse events in a cohort of patients with IEIs.
METHODS: Plasma was collected from 22 health care worker controls, 81 patients with IEIs, and 2 patients with thymoma; the plasma was collected before immunization, 1 to 6 days before the second dose of mRNA vaccine, and at a median of 30 days after completion of the immunization schedule with either mRNA vaccine or a single dose of Johnson & Johnson's Janssen vaccine. Anti-spike (anti-S) and anti-nucleocapsid antibody titers were measured by using a luciferase immunoprecipitation systems method. Information on T- and B-cell counts and use of immunosuppressive drugs was extracted from medical records, and information on vaccine-associated adverse events was collected after each dose.
RESULTS: Anti-S antibodies were detected in 27 of 46 patients (58.7%) after 1 dose of mRNA vaccine and in 63 of 74 fully immunized patients (85.1%). A lower rate of seroconversion (7 of 11 [63.6%]) was observed in patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy. Previous use of rituximab and baseline counts of less than 1000 CD3+ T cells/mL and less than 100 CD19+ B cells/mL were associated with lower anti-S IgG levels. No significant adverse events were reported.
CONCLUSION: Vaccinating patients with IEIs is safe, but immunogenicity is affected by certain therapies and gene defects. These data may guide the counseling of patients with IEIs regarding prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the need for subsequent boosts.