Antifungal combinations in Mucorales: a microbiological perspective.
Mycoses. 2019 Mar 04;:
Authors: Schwarz P, Cornely OA, Dannaoui E
Mucormycosis mostly affects immunocompromised patients and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality despite currently available treatments. In that context, combination therapy might be the key to a better outcome for these patients. Purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss the current combination data obtained in vitro, in vivo in animal models of mucormycosis, and in patients. In vitro combination studies showed that most of the interactions between antifungal drugs were indifferent, even though that some synergistic interactions were achieved for the combination of echinocandins with either azoles or amphotericin B. Importantly, antagonism was never observed. Animal models of mucormycosis focused on infections caused by Rhizopus arrhizus, neglecting most other species responsible for human disease. In these experimental animal models, no strong interactions have been demonstrated, although a certain degree of synergism has been reported in some instances. Combinations of antifungals with non-antifungal drugs have also been largely explored in vitro and in animal models and yielded interesting results. In patients with ketoacidosis and rhino-orbito-cerebral infection, combination of polyene with caspofungin was effective. In contrast, despite promising experimental data, adjunctive therapy with the iron chelator deferasirox was unfavourable and was associated with a higher mortality than monotherapy with liposomal amphotericin B. More combinations have to be tested in vitro and a much larger panel of Mucorales species has to be tested in vivo to give a valuable statement if antifungal combination therapy could be an effective treatment strategy in patients with mucormycosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PMID: 30830980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]