Antifungal prophylaxis during 7 + 3 induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia is associated with improved survival, in a setting with low incidence of invasive mold infections.

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Antifungal prophylaxis during 7 + 3 induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia is associated with improved survival, in a setting with low incidence of invasive mold infections.

Support Care Cancer. 2020 May 21;:

Authors: Hsu A, Matera R, Vieira K, Reagan JL, Farmakiotis D

Abstract
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this patient population, antifungal prophylaxis (AP) has been associated with decreased incidence of IFIs and better survival. However, some centers have not adopted AP during induction chemotherapy for AML, as it is unclear whether AP improves outcomes in settings where the incidence of invasive mold infections is low. We retrospectively assessed the differences in clinical outcomes and resource utilization in patients undergoing 7 + 3 induction chemotherapy for AML, after implementing a policy of AP as part of a dedicated inpatient malignant hematology service (HS) at Rhode Island Hospital. Between January 1, 2007 and April 1, 2019, 56 patients with AML received AP during 7 + 3 induction chemotherapy and 52 patients did not, without significant differences in their baseline characteristics. Use of AP was associated with less proven or probable IFI (0% vs. 6%, P = 0.1) and lower all-cause in-hospital mortality (7% vs. 21%, P < 0.05), without significant increases in resource utilization or toxicities. Empiric and targeted antifungal therapies were more frequently started in the non-AP group (69%) than changed in the AP group (41%, P < 0.005). Having a dedicated inpatient malignant hematology service was also associated with improved outcomes. However, use of AP was associated with better survival (30-day post-induction survival log-rank P < 0.05), prior to the implementation of this clinical service as well, which is suggestive of an independent benefit from AP.

PMID: 32435969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]