Indian J Med Microbiol. 2020 Jul-Dec;38(3 & 4):371-378. doi: 10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_20_299.
BACKGROUND: In the past years, saprophytic bacteria and candida have been emerging as potential human pathogens causing life-threatening infections in patients with cancer. This study was designed to determine the bacteria and candida species, causing bloodstream infections in cancer patients and the assessment of their susceptibility to antibiotics and biosynthesised silver nanoparticles.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven microbial pathogens recovered from blood samples of cancer patients were included in the present study. The microbial isolates were collected in a duration period extending from December 2016 to July 2018 at National Cancer Institute, Cairo, Egypt. The clinical samples were collected using microbiological methods and were cultivated on MacConkey agar, blood agar media and Sabouraud dextrose agar media. The microbial isolates were identified using both standard microbiological methods and VITEK 2 compact automated system. The antibiotic resistance pattern was determined by the VITEK 2 compact automatic system and disk diffusion method, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The characterisation of nanoparticles was carried out using ultraviolet spectroscopy and electron microscope. The antimicrobial activity of bio (AgNPs) was evaluated.
RESULTS: A total of 97 microbial isolates recovered from collected blood samples from cancer patients were included in the study. Pathogenic bacteria and Candida were represented by 74 isolates (76.22%) and 23 isolates (23.69), respectively. Among the 74 bacterial isolates, Escherichia coli constituted (27.81%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (24.72%), Acinetobacter baummannii (11.33%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.12%), Enterobacter spp. (3.09%) and) Staphylococcus aureus (2.06%). Cedecea davisae (1.03%), Burkholderia cepacia (1.03%) and Pantoea agglomerans (1.03%). Among the 23 Candida isolates, Candida tropicalis constituted (9.27%), Candida albicans (5.15%), Candida glabrata (5.15%) and Candida krusei (4.12%) from the total microbial isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility results revealed that amikacin and gentamycin were the most effective antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria, while vancomycin and linezolid were most effective against S. aureus. Caspofungin was the most effective against candida species. The obtained stable biosynthesised silver nanoparticles ranged in size from 10 nm to 100 nm and were mostly spherical in shape. These biosilver nanoparticles showed the highest antimicrobial activity against most of the microbial isolates (bacteria and Candida). The in vitro cytotoxicity of biosynthesised AgNPs on HeLa cell lines revealed a dose-dependent potential. The IC50 value of AgNPs was found 6 and 5.6 μg/ml, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The present study revealed a significant distribution of multidrug-resistant microbes, which may increase the burden of healthcare to prevent infections in cancer patients. Biosilver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant microbes and could be considered as effective agents against these strains.