Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Dec 21;Publish Ahead of Print. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003035. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Antibacterial activity of ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) was evaluated against bacterial isolates from children in the United States with a urinary tract infection (UTI) or intra-abdominal infection (IAI) during the 2016-2019 International Network for Optimal Resistance Monitoring program. Prevalence of isolates and susceptibility to CAZ-AVI in pediatric and adult patients were compared.
METHODS: Bacterial isolates were collected from children with a UTI or IAI at 70 US medical centers from 2016 to 2019. The antimicrobial activity of CAZ-AVI and comparator agents was tested by broth microdilution methods.
RESULTS: The most prevalent Enterobacterales pathogens in children with UTIs were Escherichia coli (62.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.1%) and Proteus mirabilis (6.2%). Minimum inhibitory concentration 90% values for CAZ-AVI against Enterobacterales (0.25 μg/mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 μg/mL) were identical for children and adults. The most prevalent Enterobacterales pathogens in children with IAIs were E. coli (57.4%), K. pneumoniae (11.1%) and Enterobacter cloacae species complex (9.3%). All isolates of Enterobacterales from pediatric patients with UTI and IAI were susceptible to CAZ-AVI, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotypes. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolates to CAZ-AVI was 96.2% in children and 98.4% in adults with a UTI: for IAI it was 100% and 97.2%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Contemporary UTI and IAI pathogens collected from US children from 2016 to 2019 exhibited similar prevalence and susceptibilities as isolates collected from adult patients. CAZ-AVI exhibited potent activity against these pathogens.