Antimicrobial de-escalation in adult hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients with febrile neutropenia of unknown origin.

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Antimicrobial de-escalation in adult hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients with febrile neutropenia of unknown origin.

J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2019 Aug 18;:1078155219865303

Authors: Petteys MM, Kachur E, Pillinger KE, He J, Copelan EA, Shahid Z

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of empiric antimicrobial therapy in febrile neutropenia of unknown origin is unclear. This study evaluated outcomes in autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients with febrile neutropenia of unknown origin who received early de-escalation of broad-spectrum antimicrobials prior to hematopoietic recovery versus those who continued broad-spectrum antimicrobials until hematopoietic recovery.
METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study assessed hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients with febrile neutropenia of unknown origin. Patients were categorized into either cohort 1, representing early de-escalation prior to hematopoietic recovery, or cohort 2, representing continuation of broad-spectrum antimicrobials until hematopoietic recovery.
RESULTS: A total of 107 patients were included (22.4% in cohort 1 and 77.6% in cohort 2). Most patients (87.5%) in cohort 1 underwent haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation, whereas 84.3% of patients in cohort 2 received autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation. There were no significant differences in rates of recurrent fever (4.2% versus 7.2%, in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively, adjusted odds ratio = 0.84, P = 0.85), re-escalation (4.2% versus 4.8%, adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, P = 0.64), and Clostridioides difficile-associated infections (4.2% versus 2.4%, adjusted odds ratio = 2.27, P = 0.43). No patient experienced in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit admission, or bacteremia.
CONCLUSION: Hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients with febrile neutropenia of unknown origin in which broad-spectrum antimicrobials were de-escalated prior to hematopoietic recovery did not experience adverse outcomes. These results concur with recently published studies and the Fourth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia guidelines. An early de-escalation approach in haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients specifically appears safe and may result in a reduction in antimicrobial utilization.

PMID: 31423947 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]