Cureus. 2021 Jan 26;13(1):e12913. doi: 10.7759/cureus.12913.
Background Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections encountered in clinical practice. Evidence supports that empirical treatment guidelines based on local bacterial spectrum and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance provide the best clinical results and also prevent the emergence of resistant strains. Antimicrobial resistance has been increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. This warrants continuous reporting and surveillance of the emergence of AMR among the uropathogens across regions and nations. Materials and methods A retrospective cross-sectional study using antibiograms of adult patients with culture-proven UTI during January 2011 and January 2017 was done. Comparative analysis was performed between the two study periods for the prevalence, changing trends of antimicrobial resistance, and usage of antimicrobials for testing. Results The commonest organism cultured during each study period was Escherichia coli (56.6% and 51.6%). The most frequently tested antibiotics were ampicillin (97%, 88%), amikacin (85%, 85%), nitrofurantoin (95%, 95%), cephalexin (84%, 93%), and norfloxacin (83%, 83%). There was a significant increase in resistance proportion noted for imipenem (by 29.8%), meropenem (by 18.3%), ertapenem (by 24.9%), ciprofloxacin (by 26.5%), nitrofurantoin (by 11.2%), amikacin (by 8.7%), and cefotaxime (by 7.4%) in 2017 as compared to 2011. A significant increase in susceptibility was seen for tobramycin (by 32.5%), cefepime (by 14.4%), and polymyxin (by 12.6%) in 2017 when compared to 2011. Conclusion Our analysis has shown that there is an alarmingly increasing trend for AMR among uropathogens in this region as compared to developed countries. Data on changing trends of antimicrobial testing and reporting might help in strengthening antimicrobial surveillance.