J Vet Res. 2021 Jun 8;65(2):147-154. doi: 10.2478/jvetres-2021-0030. eCollection 2021 Jun.
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of antimicrobial-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium isolated from the oral cavities of captive giant pandas in China.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: The virulence-associated determinant and antimicrobial resistance genes were detected and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed on 54 strains of each bacterium.
RESULTS: All isolates showed 100% multidrug resistance. E. faecalis isolates showed a higher percentage of strains resistant to gentamicin (48.1%), vancomycin (55.6%), linezolid (100%), and streptomycin (33.3%) than E. faecium isolates. The resistance genes of Enterococcus spp. were present to highly varying extents according to antibiotic type, their presence breaking down for E. faecalis and E. faecium respectively as aac(6')/aph(2″) 5.56% and 5.56%; aph(3')-Ⅲ 0% and 14.81%; ant(6)-I 0% and 3.7%; ant(4')-Ia 0% and 64.81%; tetL 20.37% and 100%; vanA 92.59% and 46.3%; vanB 0% and 0%; cfr 0% and 90.74%; optrA 96.3% and 3.7%; blaZ 0% and 1.85%; blaTEM 0% and 0%; tetA 20.37% and 0%; tetC 24.07% and 100%; tetM 0% and 0%; ermA 12.96% and 100%; ermB 5.56% and 3.7%; and ermC 0% and 1.85%.Virulence-associated determinants were detected in this research, which typically include efaA, gelE, asa1, ace, cylA, esp and hyl; however, the latter three were not detected. High proportions of the isolates carried the efaA, gelE, asa1, and ace genes. Respectively for E. faecalis and E. faecium their detection was efaA 98.1% and 85.2%; gelE 98.1% and 87%; asa1 92.6% and 87%; and ace 87% and 85.2%.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study on the potential disease risk and antimicrobial-resistant characteristics of E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates in giant panda oral cavities. The results of this study show that the antimicrobial resistance rate of Enterococcus spp. isolated from the oral cavity of captive pandas is very high, and thus needs to be monitored.