Antimicrobial resistance in freshwater Plesiomonas shigelloides isolates: Implications for environmental pollution and risk assessment.

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Antimicrobial resistance in freshwater Plesiomonas shigelloides isolates: Implications for environmental pollution and risk assessment.

Environ Pollut. 2019 Oct 31;:113493

Authors: Ekundayo TC, Okoh AI

Abstract
Antibiotic resistance is known to impact treatment efficiency of Plesiomonas infections negatively with fatal outcomes. This study investigated antibiogram fingerprint of P. shigelloides (n = 182) isolated from three South Africa rivers using the disc diffusion technique. Environmental pollution and analogous health risk (given infections) that could associate with the freshwaters and empirical treatment of Plesiomonas were assessed using Antibiotic Resistance Index (ARI) and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Indices (MARI), respectively. Thirteen EUCAST recommended (ERAs) and eleven non-recommended antibiotics (NAs) used as first line agents in the treatment of gastroenteritis and extraintestinal infections were tested. Resistance against ERAs decreased from cefoxitin (37.91%), cefuroxime (35.17%), cefepime (31.87%), ceftriaxone (29.67%), ciprofloxacin (18.13%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (10.44%), piperacillin/tazobactam (8.79%), ertapenem (4.95%), norfloxacin (4.40%), levofloxacin (2.75%), meropenem (1.10%) to imipenem (0.55%). The isolates had higher resistance (≥36.07%) against NAs but were susceptible to amikacin (67.58%), gentamycin (73.08%), and tetracycline (80.77%). MARI of the isolates were significantly different between ERAs and NAs (P-value < 0.05) and had an average of 0.17 ± 0.18 and 0.45 ± 0.13, respectively. About 33.87% and 95.63% of the isolates had MARI value from 0.23 to 0.62 and 0.27-0.82 to ERAs and NAs, respectively. Also, ERAs-based and NAs-based ARI across sampling units showed significantly different (P-value < 0.05) means of 0.18 ± 0.09 and 0.46 ± 0.05, respectively. MARI attributed low risk of empirical treatment to recommended antibiotics but higher risk to non-recommended antibiotics. Model estimated successful and unsuccessful empirical treatment of infections risks due to resistance in the isolates using recommended antibiotics as 65.93% and 34.07%, respectively; 1.65% and 98.35% in the case of non-recommended antibiotics, respectively. ARI based on recommended antibiotics identified potential environmental pollutions in a number of sites. Resistance in freshwater P. shigelloides especially against cephalosporin, quinolones and fluoroquinolones is distressing and might suggests high pollution of the freshwaters in the Eastern Cape Province.

PMID: 31753632 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]