Antimicrobial resistance in low- and middle-income countries: current status and future directions

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021 Jul 6. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2021.1951705. Online ahead of print.


IntroductionRising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) globally continue to pose a grave threat to human health. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are disproportionately affected, partly due to the high burden of communicable diseases.Areas coveredWe reviewed current trends in AMR in LMICs and examined the forces driving AMR in those regions. The state of interventions being undertaken to curb AMR across the developing world are discussed, and the impact of the current COVID-19 pandemic on those efforts is explored.Expert opinionThe dynamics that drive AMR in LMICs are inseparable from the political, economic, socio-cultural, and environmental forces that shape these nations. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated underlying factors that increase AMR. Some progress is being made in implementing surveillance measures in LMICs, but implementation of concrete measures to meaningfully impact AMR rates must address the underlying structural issues that generate and promote AMR. This, in turn, will require large infrastructural investments and significant political will.

PMID:34225545 | DOI:10.1080/14787210.2021.1951705