Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021 Jul;28(7):3776-3782. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.03.047. Epub 2021 Mar 23.
Antimicrobial resistance patterns among different Escherichia coli isolates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to investigate the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli isolated from different samples, and to identify potential pathogenic isolates in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). In total, 51 bacterial isolates were recovered from 113 samples of human urine, food (raw meat, raw chicken, raw egg surface, and fresh vegetables), water, and air. Twenty-four E. coli isolates were tested for susceptibility to 26 antibiotics. The air sample isolates were most resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefalotin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefixime, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol. The isolates from vegetable samples were resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, amoxicillin/sulbactam, cefalotin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, and cefixime. By contrast, the isolates from the water samples were resistant only to amoxicillin and ampicillin. The isolates from the human urine samples were most frequently resistant to norfloxacin (80%) followed by amoxicillin and ampicillin (70%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (55%), ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin (50%), cefalotin (30%), cefuroxime, cefixime and cefotaxime (25%), ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefepime and aztreonam (20%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam and gentamicin (10%), and amoxicillin/sulbactam and cefoxitin (5%). Almost all (23/25, 95.8%) (n = 23) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR) (i.e., resistant to 3 or more classes of antibiotics), and 16.7% (n = 4) of those were positive for extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Of the 4 ESBL-producers, 3 were positive for blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M1group, 2 were positive for blaCMY-2, and 1 each was positive for blaCTX-M-2 group, blaSHV, and blaOXA-47. The quinolone resistance gene qnrS was detected in 25% (n = 6) of the E. coli strains isolated from urine (N = 5) and air (N = 1) samples. The considerable number of antimicrobial resistance genes detected among E. coli isolates tested here is alarming and should raise public health concern.