Infect Dis Rep. 2021 Apr 27;13(2):401-410. doi: 10.3390/idr13020038.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with increased hospital stay and high morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. The aims of this study were to (i) determine the incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in the first episodes of VAP and to assess potential differences in bacterial profiles of subjects with early- versus late-onset VAP. This was a retrospective cohort study over a period of 18 months including all patients who had a first episode of VAP confirmed by positive bacterial culture. Subjects were distributed into two groups according to the number of intubation days: early-onset VAP (<5 days) or late-onset VAP (≥5 days). The primary endpoint was the nature of causative pathogens and their resistance profiles. Sixty patients were included, 29 men and 31 women, with an average age of 38 ± 16 years. The IGS 2 at admission was 40.5 [32-44] and APACHE was 19 [15-22]. Monomicrobial infections were diagnosed in 77% of patients (n = 46). The most frequently isolated bacteria were A. baumannii, 53% (n = 32); P. aeruginosa in 37% (n = 22); Enterobacterales in 28% (n = 17) and S. aureus in 5% (n = 3). Ninety-seven percent of the bacteria were MDR. The VAP group comprised 36 (60%) episodes of early-onset VAP and 24 (40%) episodes of late-onset VAP. There was no significant difference in the distribution of the bacterial isolates, nor in terms of antibacterial resistances between early- and late-onset VAPs. Our data support recent observations that there is no microbiological difference in the prevalence of potential MDR pathogens or in their resistance profiles associated with early- versus late-onset VAPs, especially in countries with high rates of MDR bacteria.