J Clin Microbiol. 2021 Mar 24:JCM.02874-20. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02874-20. Online ahead of print.
Background: Detection of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) with carbapenamase-producing (CP) genes is critical for preventing transmission. Our objective was to assess whether certain antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) profiles can efficiently identify CP-CRPA.Methods: We defined CRPA as P. aeruginosa with imipenem or meropenem MICs of ≥8μg/ml; CP-CRPA were CRPA with CP genes (bla KPC/bla IMP/bla NDM/bla VIM). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of AST profiles to detect CP-CRPA among CRPA collected by CDC's Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network (AR Lab Network) and the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) during 2017-2019.Results: Three percent (195/6192) of AR Lab Network CRPA were CP-CRPA. Among CRPA, adding not susceptible (NS) to cefepime or ceftazidime to the definition had 91% sensitivity and 50% specificity for identifying CP-CRPA; NS to ceftolozane-tazobactam had 100% sensitivity and 86% specificity. Of 965 EIP CRPA evaluated for CP genes, seven CP-CRPA were identified; 6 of 7 were NS to cefepime and ceftazidime, and all 7 were NS to ceftolozane-tazobactam. Among 4182 EIP isolates, clinical laboratory AST results were available for 96% for cefepime, 80% for ceftazidime, and 4% for ceftolozane-tazobactam. The number of CRPA needed to test (NNT) to identify one CP-CRPA decreased from 138 to 64 if the definition of NS to cefepime or ceftazidime was used and to 7 with NS to ceftolozane-tazobactam.Conclusion: Adding not susceptible to cefepime or ceftazidime to CRPA carbapenemase testing criteria would reduce the NNT by half and can be implemented in most clinical laboratories; adding not susceptible to ceftolozane-tazobactam could be even more predictive once AST for this drug is more widely available.