Yonsei Med J. 2021 Apr;62(4):306-314. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2021.62.4.306.
PURPOSE: Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) causes respiratory tract infections. Its non-vaccine serotypes and multidrug-resistant pneumococcal diseases have increased during the post-pneumococcal vaccination era. Therefore, it is important to understand the regional and age-related antimicrobial susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to select appropriate empirical antimicrobials.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied trends in the antimicrobial resistance of S. pneumoniae to commonly prescribed antibiotics in patient groups of various ages at a single teaching hospital in Jeju Island from 2009 to 2018.
RESULTS: In total, 1460 S. pneumoniae isolates were obtained during the study period. The overall antimicrobial resistance rates of S. pneumoniae to penicillin, erythromycin, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and vancomycin were 16.2%, 84.7%, 25.9%, 3.3%, and 0.0%, respectively, and the MDR rate was 6.7%. Erythromycin and ceftriaxone resistance rates increased by years; however, they were significantly reduced in adult groups. Levofloxacin resistance and MDR rates were also higher in adult groups. Overall, the MDR rate significantly increased during the recent 10 years, as well as in patients with a history of hospitalization within 90 days [odds ratio (OR)=3.58, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.91-6.71] and sinusitis (OR=4.98, 95% CI=2.07-11.96).
CONCLUSION: Erythromycin and ceftriaxone resistance rates and the MDR rate of S. pneumoniae significantly increased during the recent 10 years; the trends in individual antimicrobial resistance rates significantly differed between the age groups. This study indicates the need for caution when using ceftriaxone as an empirical antimicrobial against pneumococcal infections.