Chem Eng J. 2021 Feb 23:129071. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2021.129071. Online ahead of print.
Engineering of self-disinfecting surfaces to constrain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is a challenging task for the scientific community, because the human coronavirus spreads through respiratory droplets. Titania (TiO2) nanocomposite antimicrobial coatings is one of the ideal remedies to disinfect pathogens (virus, bacteria, fungi) from common surfaces under light illumination. The photocatalytic disinfection efficiency of recent TiO2 nanocomposite antimicrobial coatings for surfaces, dental and orthopaedic implants are emphasized in this review. Mostly, inorganic metals (e.g. copper (Cu), silver (Ag), manganese (Mn), etc), non-metals (e.g. fluorine (F), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P)) and two-dimensional materials (e.g. MXenes, MOF, graphdiyne) were incorporated with TiO2 to regulate the charge transfer mechanism, surface porosity, crystallinity, and the microbial disinfection efficiency. The antimicrobial activity of TiO2 coatings was evaluated against the most crucial pathogenic microbes such as Escherichia coli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Legionella pneumophila, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, T2 bacteriophage, H1N1, HCoV-NL63, vesicular stomatitis virus, bovine coronavirus. Silane functionalizing agents and polymers were used to coat the titanium (Ti) metal implants to introduce superhydrophobic features to avoid the microbial adhesion. TiO2 nanocomposite coatings in dental and orthopaedic metal implants disclosed an exceptional bio-corrosion resistance, durability, biocompatibility, bone-formation capability, and long-term antimicrobial efficiency. Moreover, the commercial trend, techno-economics, challenges, and prospects of antimicrobial nanocomposite coatings are also discussed briefly.